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Full text of "A general history of Connecticut from its first settlement under George Fenwick, esq. to its latest period of amity with Great Britain; including a description of the country, and many curious and interesting anecdotes. To which is added, an appendix, wherein new and the true sources of the present rebellion in America are point"

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O F 



Firft Settlement under George Fenwick, Efq. 

TO I T • 

Lateft Period of Amity with Great Britain. 


And many curious and interefling Anecdotes. 

To which is added, 

An Appendix, wherein new and the true Sources of the prefenc 
Rebellion in America are pointed out ; together with the particu- 
lar Part caicen by the People of Cunne&icut in Its Promotion. 

Bv a Gentleman of the Province. 

Plus apud me ratio vahbit, quam vulgi opinio. 

Cic. Parad. u 


Printed for the Author ; 
And fo!d by J. Bew, No. 28, Patcr-Nofter-Rotr t 


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THOUGH Connecticut be the 
moft flourifhing, and, pro- 
portionally, the moft populous pro- 
vince in North - America, it has 
hitherto found no writer to intro- 
duce it, in its own right, to the 
notice of the world. Slight and 
curfory mention in the accounts 
of other provinces, or of America 
in general, has yet only been made 
of it. The hiftorians of New- 
England have conftantly endea- 
voured to aggrandize Maffachufets- 
Bay as the parent of the other co- 
lonies, and as comprehending all 
that is worthy of attention, in that 

A 2 country. 


country. Thus Governor Hutch- 
infon fays, in the Preface to his 
Hiftory of that Province, " that 
" there was no importation of plan- 
cc ters from England to any part 
" of the continent, northward of 
" Maryland, except to the Maffa- 
c ' chufets, for more than 50 years 
" after the colony began;" not 
knowing, or willing to forget or 
to conceal, that Saybrook, New- 
haven, and Long-Ifland, were 
fettled by emigrants from England 
within half that period. Another 
reafon for the obfcurity in which 
the Conne£ticuten{ians have hi- 
therto been involved, is to be found 
among their own fnnfter views and 


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preface; v 

purpofes. Prudence dilated, that 
their deficiency in point of right 
to the foil they occupied, their 
wanton and barbarous perfections, 
illegal pra&ices, daring ufurpations, 
&c. &c. had better be concealed, 
than expofed to public view. To 
diflipate this cloud of prejudice 
and knavery, and to bring to light 
truths long concealed is the mo- 
tive of my offering the following 
fheets to the world. I am bold 
to affert, that Conne&icut merits a 
fuller account than envy or igno- 
rance has yet fuffered to be given 
of it ; and that I have followed 
the line of truth freely, and un- 
biaffed by partiality or prejudice. 

A 3 The 


The Reader, therefore, will not 
be furprifed, fhould I have placed 
the New-Englanders in a different 
light from that in which they have 
yet appeared : their charaderizers 
have not been fufficiently unpreju- 
diced, unawed by power, or un- 
affected by the defire of obtaining 
it, always to fet them in the true 
one. Dr. Mather and Mr. Neal 
were popular writers; but at the 
time they extolled the prudence 
and piety of the colonifts, they fup- 
preffed what are called in New-Eng- 
land unnecejfary truths.' Governor 
Hutchinfon, who loved fame, and 
feared giving offence, publifhed a 
few only of thofe truths ; which 


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failed not to procure him a pro- 
portionate ftiare of popular diftruft 
and odium. For my own part, I 
believe my readers will give me 
credit, for having neither the fa- 
vour nor fear of man before me in 
writing this Hiftory of Conne&icut. 
I difcard the one ; I court not 
the other. My fole aim has been 
to reprefent the country, the peo- 
ple, and their tranfadtions, in pro- 
per colours. 

Too much, however, muft not 
be expeded from me. I am very 
fenfible of many great defedls in 
this performance, wherein very 
little afliftance was to be obtained 
from the publications of others. 


viii PREFACE. 

Mr. Chalmers, indeed, who is 
writing " Political Annals of the 
prefent United Colonies" pursues 
that tafk with great pains and ad- 
drefs. His refearches have been of 
fome ufe to me : but, as to the New- 
England writers, error, difguife, and 
mifreprefentation, too much abound 
in them to be ferviceable in this un- 
dertaking, though they related more 
• to the fubjed than they do. The 
good-natured critic, therefore, will 
excufe the want of a regular and 
connected detail of fads and 
events, which it was impoflible for 
me to preferve, having been de- 
prived of papers of my anceftors, 
which would have given my re- 


* ■ 

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lation that and other advan- 
tages. I hope, therefore, for 
much indulgence, ftriking, as I 
have -done, into a new and dark 
path, almoft wholly without a 
guide. If I have carried my- 
felf through it, though with 
fome digrefllons, yet without in- 
curring the danger of being ac- 
counted a deceiver, my difordered 
garb will, I prefume, find an apo- 
logy in the ruggednefs of the road, 
and my fcripture phrafeology be 
afcribed to the ufage of my coun- 

For three generations my fore- 
fathers were careful obfervers of the 
proceedings of the Conneiticut co- 

lonifts ; 



lonifts; and, if their papers and my- 
felf fliould continue in exiftence till 
a return of peace ftiall reftore them 
to my pofleflion, I truft the Public 
will not be difpleafed with the de- 
fign I have of commiting them to 
the prefs. In the mean time, left 
that event fliould never take place, 

I beg their acceptance of the pre- 
fent volume, which, whatever other 
hiftorical requifite it may want, 
muft, I think, be allowed to pof- 
fefs originality and truth, (rare pro- 
perties in modern publications,) and 
therefore, I hope, will not be deemed 
unworthy the public favour. 




O F 


fTSTTHJOra F T E R fcveral unfuccefsful 
5*Jr njn^j attem p ts to form fettlements 

p~k. jrf"^ in the fouttiern parts of 
kWk^"^ North - America, in which 
little more had been done than giving the 
name Virginia* in compliment to the 
Virgin-queen Elizabeth, to the country, 
a patent was obtained, in 1606, from 
James I. by Sir Thomas Gates and Af- 
fociates, of all lands there between the 
34th and 45th degrees of North latitude : 
and, at the patentees own felicitation, they 
were divided into two Companies, com- 
monly denominated the London and 



Plymouth Companies; to the former 
of which were granted all the lands 
between the 34th and 41ft degrees of 
North latitude, and to the latter all thofe 
between the 38th and 45th degrees. 
A part of the coaft of the territory laft 
mentioned being explored in 16 14, and 
a chart prefented to the then Prince 
of Wales, afterwards Charles I. it re- 
ceived from him the appellation of New* 

In the mean time, however, notwith- 
ftanding the claim of the Englifh in gene- 
ral to North America, and the particular 
grant to Sir Thomas Gates and Affociates, 
above-mentioned, the Dutch got footing 
on Manahattan or New- York Ifland, puflw 
ed up Hudfon's river as high as Al- 
bany, and were beginning to fpread on 
its banks, when, in 16 14, they were 
compelled by Sir Samuel Argal to acknow- 
ledge themfelves fubjedts of the King of 
England, and fubmit to the authority of 
the Governor of Virginia. 


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CONNEfctlfcUf. *x 

ft>r the better enabling them to ao 
fcomplifli their American undertakings, 
the Plymouth Company, in 1620* ob- 
tained a new patent, admitting new mem* 
bers of rank and fortune. By this they 
were ftyled " The Council, eftabiiflied at 
u Plymouth, for planting and governing 
" that country called New- England \* and 
to them Were now granted all the lands be* 
tween the 40th and 48th degrees of N. la- 
titude, and extending Eaft and Weft from 
the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, 
except fuch as were then a&ually poffeffed 
by any chriftian prince or people. Not 
long afterwards, the patentees came to 
the refolution of making a divifion of the 
country among themfelves by lot, which 
they did in the prefence of James I. The 
map of New England, &c. publifhed by 
Purchas in 1625, which is now become 
fcarce, add probably the only memorial 
extant of the refult, has the following 
names on the following portions of the 
coaft : 

B Earl 


Earl of Arundel Between the rivers 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges y St. Croix and 
Earl of Carlifle 

Lord Keeper 

Sir William Belafis 

Sir Robert Manfell 

Earl of Holdernefs 
Earl of Pembroke 
Lord Sheffield 
Sir Henry Spelman 
Sir William Apfley 
Captain Love 
Duke of Buckingham 
Earl of Warwick 
Duke of Richmond 
Mr. Jennings 
Dr. Sutcliffe 

Lord Gorges 
Sir Samuel Argal 
Dr. Bar. Gooch 

J Penobfcot. 

! Between Penobfcot 
and Sagadahoc 

Between Sagada- 
hoc and Charles 

1 Between Charles 
river and Nar- 

In the above map, no names appear on 
the coaft north of the river St. Croix, i. e. 
Nova Scotia, which was relinquiflied by 


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the patentees in favour of Sir William 
Alexander : the coaft weft of Narra- 
ganfet is not exhibited by Purchas, fo that 

it is uncertain whether the divifion above 
mentioned extended to that or not. Pro- 
bably, it was not tfien fufficicntly explored. 
However, in 1635, ^ e P ate ^tees, from 
the exigency of their affairs, thinking a 
furrender of their patent to the King, 
with refervation of their feveral rights in 
regard to the property of the land, an 
advifeable meafure, a new divifion of the 
coaft was ftruck out, confifting of twelve 
lots, extending to and comprizing land 
on the weft fide of Hudfon's river, and of 
courfe the Dutch fettlements at Manahat- 
tan. The following is an account of thefe 
lots: r . 

<c 1. From the river St. Croix toPema- 

2. From Pemaquid to Sagadahoc. 

3. The land between the rivers Ama- 

rafcoggin and Kenebec. 

B 2 4. From 


4. From Sagadahoc along the fea-coaft 

to Pifcataqua. 

5. From Pifcataqua to Naumkeak [or 


6. From Naumkeak, round the fea- 
coaft by Cape Cod, to Narragan- 

7. From Narraganfet to the half-way 

bound between that and Connefti- 
cut river, and fo fifty miles up into 
the country. 

8. From the half-way bound to Con- 

nedkicut river, and fo fifty miles into 
the country, 

9. From Conneaicut river, along the 
iea-coaft, to Hudfon's river, and fo 
up thirty miles. 

10. From the thirty miles end to croft 
up forty miles eaftward. 

11. From the Weft fide of Hudfon't 
river thirty miles up the country to- 
wards the fortieth degree, where 
New-England beginneth. 

1 z. From 


12. Fron* the end of the thirty miles 
up the faid river, Northward thirty 
miles further, and from thence to 
crofs into the land forty miles." 
Hutcb. Hijl. ofMafi Bay. 

Thefe divifions were, immediately on 
the above-mentioned furrender, to be con- 
firmed by the King to the proprietors ; 
and propofed to be ere&ed into fo many 
diftindfc provinces, under one general 
Governor of New-England. It is certain 
that this plan was not then carried into 
execution in the whole. Several, if not 
all, of the lots were formally conveyed to 
their refpedtive owners previous to the re- 
Agnation of the patent. How many were 
confirmed by the King, is not known : 
there is pofitive evidence but of one— 
to Sir Ferdinando Gorges. 

The eighth and ninth lots nearly form 
the province of Connecticut, taking 
its name from the great Indian king who 
reigned when the Englifli made their firft 
inroads into the country. 

B3 But 



"But before I give an account of that 
event, it may be proper to premife a few 
particulars concerning the Dutch, aU 
ready fpoken of as having feated them- 
felves on New-York illand and the banks 

i p * 4 

of Hudfon's river; and alfo concerning 
the fcttlemcnts formed by the Englifli in 
and near the Maffachufcts-Bay. 

The fame year which eftablifhed the 
Council at Plymou th, eftablifhed alfo the 
Dutch Weft-India Company, to whom 
the States of Holland are faid to have 
granted, the year after, all the lands be- 
tween the Capes Cod and Henlopen. 
Under their encouragement and fupport^ 
the Dutch at New-York were induced to 


look upon the ait of Argal with contempt i 
accordingly they revolted from the alle- 
giance he had impofed upon them, caft off 
the authority of their Englifh Governor, 
and proceeded in their colonifing purfuits 
under one of their own nation : — in which 
they feem to have employed their wonted 
induftry, having, before the year 1637, 


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credted a fort on the fpot where Hertford 
now ftands. 

A party of Brownifts, who, in 1619, 
are faid to have obtained a grant of land 
from the Virginia Company, fet foil on 
the 6th of September, in the following 
year, for Hudfon's river ; but making, on 
the nth of November, the harbour of 
Cape Cod, inftead of the place of their 
deftination, and finding themfelves not in 
a fit condition to put to fea again at fuch a 
late feafon of the year, they ranged along 
the coaft till a commodious fituation 
prefented itfelf, where they difembarked, 
and founded the colony of New Ply- 

Seven years afterwards, a party of Pu- 
ritans procured a grant of the lands from 
Merrimack river to the fouthernmoft part 
of Maffachufets-Bay. They made their 
firlt fettlement at Naumkeak, by them 
new named Salem ; and a fecond at 
Charleftown. Great numbers of the Pu- 
ritanic fedl followed their brethren to 

B 4 New- 


Nfcw-England ; fo that within a few year* 
were laid the foundations of 3ofton and 
other towns upon the Maflachufets coaft. 

Thus far had colonization taken place 
in the neighbouring country, when, in 
1634, the firft part of Englifli adventurers 
arrived in Connecticut from England *, 
under the conduft of George Fenwick, 
- Jifq; and the Rev. Thomas Peters, and 
eftablifhed themfelyes at the mouth of the 
river Connecticut, where they built a 
town which they called Saybrook, a 
church, and a fort. 

In 1636 another party proceeded from 
Pofton under the condu& of Mr. John 
Haynes and the Rev. Thomas Hooker j 
and in June fettled on the Weft Bank of 
Connecticut river, where Hertford now 
ftands, notwithftanding the Dutch had 
found their way thither before them. 

* Mather, Neal, Hutchinfon, and other writer* 
of New-England hiftory, have uniformly deviated 
from the truth in reprefenting Connecticut as ha- 
ying been firft fettled by emigrants from their dar T 
line Mafiachufets-Bay, 

A tort 

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A third party of\Englifh fettlers ip 
Connecticut were headed by Mr. Theo- 
philus Eaton and the Rev. John Davei*- 
port, who left England early in 1637, and, 
contrary to the advice of the people of 
the Maflachufets-Bay, who were very de- 
firous of their fettling in that province, 
fixed themfelves, in July following, on the 
North fide of a (mail bay wherein the 
river Quinnipiack empties itfelf, forty 
miles S. W. of Hertford, and there built 
fhe town of Newhaven. 

Thus, within the fpacc of three years, 
was Conne&icut feized upon by three 
diftin<5t Englilh parties, in three different 
places, forming a triangle 5 — by what au- 
thority I will now beg leave to enquire. 

In favour of the firft, it is alleged/ 
that they purchafed part of the lands be- 
longing to the Lords Say and Brook, 
which lands included the 8th and 
9th lots, and had been affigned to thofe 
Lords by the Earl of Warwick, who, 
about the year 1630, obtained a grant of 
' . * the 


the fame from the Council of Plymouth , 
and a patent from the King ; and that 
Feriwick was properly commiffioned to 
fettle and govern the colony. 

Neal, Douglas, and Hutchinfon, fpeak 
of this grant and aflignment with the 
greateft confidence ; but make no re- 
ference where either may be confulted. 
They were very willing to believe what 
they faid ; and wiflied to palm it upon 
the credulity of their readers as a fadt too 
well eftublifhcd to need proof. I {hall 
endeavour to (hew the futility of their af- 
fertions. Indeed, Mr. Hutchinfon him- 
fclf Inadvertently gives reafon to doubt the 
truth of them. Writing of the transitions 
of 1622, " The Earl of Warwick," fays 
he, " we are affured, had a patent for the 
u Maflachufets-Bay about the fame time, 
" but the bounds are not known/* It will 
appear prefently that a part of the territory 
in queftion was, in 1635, granted to the 
Marquis of Hamilton. Now, taking thefe 
irveral kerns together, the Council of Ply- 

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mouth are reprefcnted to have granted, not 
only Maflachufets-Bay in 1622, but alfo, 
in 1630, a region of vaft extent, including 
Connecticut, to the Earl of Warwick ; and 
then, in 1635, to ^ ave ""^granted the befl 
part of the latter to the Marquis of Hamil- 
ton. There is an infeafibility in this fup- 
pofition, that, without proof, will deprive 
it of all credit among perfons who have 
no particular intereft in the fupport of it. 

True it is, that Fenwick and his afTo- 
ciates were properly authorized to fettle 
upon lands belonging to Lords Say and 
Brook ; but that the lands they did 
fettle upon were the property v of the 
Earl of Warwick, is not only without 
proof, but againft it. It feems to be 
generally agreed, that the Lords Say and 
Brook were underftood to have a right to 
lands upon Connecticut river ; but that 
river being 500 miles long, and running 
through the greateft part of New-England, 
the iituation of their property was by no 
means pointed out : whether it lay at the 



mouth, the middle, or northern end, was 
equally unafcertained. The fettlers, indeed, 
cftabltfhed themfelves at the mouth 5 but 
without (hewing their right to the fpot : 
—they licentioufly cbofe it There never 
has been produced any writing of con* 
veyance of the land in queftion from the 
Council of Plymouth to the Earl of War- 
wick, or from the Earl of Warwick to 
the Lords Say and Brook ; and therefore 
their title to it muft be deemed not 
good in law, By ^ letter from Lord Say 
to Mr Vane, in 1635, it appears, that he 
[Lord Say], Lord Brook, and others, had 
thoughts of removing to New-England, 
but were not determined whether to join 
the adventurers in Bofton, or to fettle 
a new colony. — Hutchinf. Hift. Vol. h 
p. 42. — If Corinefticut had been affigned 
to Lords Say and Brook by the Earl of 
Warwick, as it is pretended was done iq 
1631, it is very ftrangc that thofe Lords 
fhould have been in doubt in 1635 where 
to fix themfelyes in New- England, fince 


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intereft and ambition, as well as fertility 
of foil, would naturally have led them to 
fettle in Connecticut, where they had land 
of their own, and where a fettlement was 
already began, and bore a very promifing 
appearance. Hence it feems but reafon- 
able to fbppofe, that, if Lords Say and 
Brook were entitled to any land on Con- 
necticut river, it could not lie within the 
province of Connecticut $ and, if their 
claims were derived from the Earl of 
Warwick, it may fairly be concluded, 
that their property lay much higher up 
the couutry, fince the coaft appropriated 
to the Earl of Warwick by Purchas is 
that at or about Cape Ann. Lords Say 
and Brook, therefore, might have a right 
to fend Fenwick, Peters, &c. to colonize 
upon the northern parts of Connecticut 
river, but not Southwardly at the mouth 
of it : and their negleCt of the colony at 
Saybrook may eafily be accounted for, by 
fuppofing that they were fenfible the fet- 
lers had fixed upon a wrong fite : an idea 



corroborated by this circumftance* that 
Fen wick, fome years after, fold his property 
there for a mere trifle, when he might have 
fold it dear, if his title had been good. 

But it may be afked. Who were the real 
proprietor of the eighth and ninth lots? 

It is aflcrted, that, on the Council of 
Plymouth's relignation of their patent to 
Charles I. in 1635, that Monarch granted 
the latter to the Earl of Stirling. Poffibly 
there is not now exifting any written tef- 
timony of this grant ; yet it feems authen- 
' ticated by the fale which the Earl made, 
in 1639, by his agent Forreft, of the 
Eaftern part of Long Ifland as appertaining 
to his lot, to Mr. Howell. However, 
though his claim is not, perhaps, clearly 
to be eftablifhed, it is by no means liable 
to the many obje&ions urged againft that 
of L >rds Say and Brook, which will in a 
manner be annihilated by the additional 
argument. I am now going to adduce from 
the pcfitive proof there is to whom the 
eighth lot really belongs. 


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It ftands authenticated in the Office of 
the Lords Commiflioners of Colonies, that, 
in April, 1635, was conveyed to James, 
Marquis of Hamilton, by a deed from 
the Council of Plymouth, the territory 
lying between Narraganfet bay and Con- 
necticut river. — New- Eng. Rec. A. p. 201. 
—The right to the eighth lot, therefore, 
was clearly vetted in the Marquis ; and it 
only remains to be fliewn why his de- 
fendants are not in pofleflion of it, to re- 
move every doubt upon the matter. 

Unfortunately, in the civil broils of 
his time, the Marquis engaged and died 
fighting under royal banners, while the 
King's enemies took pofleflion of his 
lands in Conne&icut. At the Reftora- 
tion of Charles II. to his Crown, Reafon 
taught the children of loyal fufferers to 
expert a Reftoration at leaft of their landed 
Property ; and the Daughter of the Mar- 
quis of Hamilton petitioned Charles II. 
to grant her relief in refped to the land 
lying between Narraganfet bay and Con- 

f* History or 

nedticut rivfcr 5 a relief <he had the mdfd 
reafon to hope for, afc " her Father had 
« c died fighting for his Fatter." But 
Charles had been too much poliflied in 
foreign Courts to do any thing effectual 
for his fuffcring Friends. Afterwards the 
Earl of Arran applied to William IIL 
for redrefs in regard to the fame land j 
but that Earl, having afted on the wrong 
fide at the Revolution, could not but expedt 
as little* from William as the friends of 
Charles II. had received from him. How- 
ever, William III. ordered the Lords Com* 
miflioners of Colonies to ftate his title, 
which they fairly did ; and the Earl was 
referred to try his caufe in Connecticut— * 
before the very people who had its lands 
in poffeffion. The Governor and k Com- 
pany of Connecticut gave a formal an* 
fwer to the claims of the Earl of Arran, 
fetting up a title under the Earl of 
Warwick, as is above mentioned, who, 
they faid, difpofed of the land In difputef 
to Lord Say and Seal and Lord Brook, 

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and the Lords Say and Brook fold the 
fame to Fenwick, Peters, and others. The 
Earl of Arran anfwered, that " when 
" they produced a grant from the Ply- 
" mouth Company of thofe lands to the 
" Earl of Warwick, it fhould have an 
" anfwer but the Colony was filent ; 
— and King William was filent alfo.— 
Vide Rec. New-Eng. A. p. 170-201. 

Since, then, no proof of any title de- 
rived from the Earl of Warwick could 
be produced by the Governor and Com* 
pany of Connecticut, when the queftion 
of right to the country was fairly brought 
into litigation, and fince there is a record 
of the grant of the eaftern part of it to 
the Marquis of Hamilton, it is evident, 
that the claim of the prefent pofleflbrs 
under Lords Say and Brook is not valid. 
The record of the Marquis of Hamil- 
ton's grant is an irrefragable proof that 
thofe Lords had no right to the traCt be- 
tween Narraganfet bay and Connecticut 

C river; 


river^ and thence the conclufion is fair, 
that they had no right to the tradt be- 
tween Connedlicut and Hudfon's river : 
for their title to both having but one, 
and the fame foundation, it follows 
of courfe, that what deftroys it in the 
former, deftrovs it in the latter alfo. 

However difputable the Earl of Stir- 
ling's claim to the land between Hudfon 
and Connecticut rivers may be, the Duke 
of Hamilton is undoubtedly the rightful 
owner of that between the latter and 
Narragarifet bay. Thus much I have 
proved to fhew the errors of Mather, 
Neal, Douglas, and Hutchinfon, who af- 
fert what the above Record contradi&s. 
I differ in opinion alfo with Divines, who 
fay that the World grows every year 
worfe than it was the laft. I believe the 
World is growing better every year ; and 
that juftice will be adminiftered to the 
Duke of Hamilton, and other noble pro- 
prietors of lands in New-England, who 


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have been wickedly fupplanted by the 
emigrations of Puritans, Republicans, 
Regicides, and Smugglers. The time, I 
hope, is haftening, when the Records I 
have quoted will be confidered, and un- 
juft pofleffors be ordered to give up their 
poflefiions to the right owners j for we 
have a King who honours his Crown, and 
prefers Juftice to Policy. 

Hooker and Haynes, who conducted 
the fecond of the three Englifh parties 
already fpoken of as making inroads into 
Connedticut, and who fixed their head- 
quarters at Hertford, left Maffachufcts- 
Bay for the fame reafon they had before 
kft England — to avoid being perfecuted, 
and to acquire the power to perfecute. 
Hooker was learned, ambitious, and ri- 
gid*. He lived near Bofton two years, 
in hopes of becoming a greater favourite 
with the people than the celebrated Mr. 
Cotton ; but finding himfelf rather un- 
likely to meet with the defired fuccefs, 

C 2 he 


he devifed the prqjedt of flying into the 
ivildernefs of Connedlicut, to get a name. 
Accordingly, in 1635, he applied to the 
General Court for leave to remove thither, 
but was then refufed. The next year, 
however, for reafons which will hereafter 
appear, he found the fanatics more com- 
pliant j and he and Haynes obtained per- 
million to emigrate into Connecticut, car- 
rying with them, as Mr. Neal exprefles 
it, <c a fort of commiflion from the Go- 
<c vernment of MafTachufets-Bay for the 
€( adminiftration of juftice" there. But 
it cannot be fuppofed that Hooker and 
his aflbciates could derive any title to 
the foil from this permiflion and com- 
miflion granted by the Maflachufets Co- 
lony, who had not the leaft right to it 
themfelvts. The emigrants not only did 
not entertain any fuch idea, but, as foon 
as they had difcovered a fituation which 
pleafed them, they even fet at nought the 
commiflion they took with them, the 


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profefled ob}c<a of which was to fecure 
the authority and jurifdi&ion claimed by 
the Maffachufets over them. Knowing 
that they had paffed the limits of that 
province, they voted themfelves an inde- 
pendent people, and commenced defpots, 
pleading the old adage, Solus Papuli fu- 
pretna Lex. It has never been fuggefted, 
I believe, that this party entered Con- 
necticut with any other femblance of au- 
thority than this ridiculous permiffion 
and commiflion of the Maffachufets dic- 

As to the third party, headed by Eaton 
and Davenport, they took poffeflion, as i& 

already mentioned, without even pre- 
tending any purchafe, grant, permiffion, 
or commiflion, from any one. 

Of thefe three parties, then, it appears 
that the two laft had not the lead fliadow 
of original right to the lands they poffefled 
themfelves of in Connecticut ; and the 
claims of the firft I have (hewn to be ill 

C 3 founded. 


founded. I will now confider the right 
they are pretended to have acquired after 
poffeflion ; in regard to which they feem 
to have been put upon the fame foot- 
ing, by a general war between them and 
the Indians, occafioned by the ambitious, 
oppreffive, and unjuft conduct of Hooker 
and Davenport. This war opened a door 
to king-killing and king-making, vio- 
lence and injuftice, in America, fimiliar 
to what we have of late years fhuddered to 
hear of in India. Hence the Colonies have 
endeavoured to eftablifh a title to the lands 
by purchafe of the natives : accordingly, 
they have produced deeds of fale figned 
by Sunkfqunw, Uncas, Jofhua, Moodus, 
and others, whom Mr. Neal and Dr. 
Mather call Sachems, and confequently 
owners of the foil. Whether thofe gen- 
tlemen knew, or did not know, that Con- 
necticut was owned by three Sachems 
only, who with their wives and families 
were killed by the Englifh, and who never 


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would give a deed of any land to the 
Dutch or Engli(h, is not material ; fince 
it is a faft, that not one of thofe Indians 
who have figned thofe famous deeds, was 
ever a Sachem, or proprietor of a fingle 
foot of land claimed by the Colony. 

It is true, that Uncas (whom Mr. Neal 
calls a Sachem, becaufe the Colonics de- 
clared him King of Mohegin, to reward 
him for deferting Saflacus, Sachem of the 
Pequods) gave deeds of lands that he had 
no right or title to : and fo did Sunk- 
fquaw, who, after murdering his Sachem, 
Quinnipiog, was alfo declared Sachem by 
the Englifti Dominion * of Newhaven. 
Gratitude, or pride, induced all thofe En- 
glifh-made Sachems to aflign deeds to their 

After the death of Uncas, his eldeft fon 
Oneko became King of Mohegin, who 

* Domin-on, in New-England, fignifies a fove- 
reign, independent {late, uncontroulable by any 
other earthly power. 

C 4 refufed 



refufed to grant any deeds of land to the 
Colony; whereupon, vexed at his wifr 
dom and honour, they declared him an in? 
ceftuous fon, depofed him, and proclaimed 
his natural brother Abimeleck to be Sa- 
chem of the Mohegins. Oneko gave a 
deed of all his lands to Mafon and Harri- 
fon, who were his friends $ as did. Abi- 
meleck, of the fame lands, to the Colony 
who had made him Sachem. This laid 
a foundation for a fuit at law, which was 
firft tried before the Judges of the colony, 
where Mafon of courfe loft his fuit. He 
appealed to the King in Council, who or- 
dered a fpecial court to fit at Norwich, in 
Connecticut ; and Mr. Dudley, a learned 
man, and Governor of Maflachufets-Bay, 
was the Prelident of it. This Court met, 
and, having heard the evidence and 
pleadings of both parties, gave a verdi£t 
in favour of Mafon's claim. The Colony 
appealed home to England, but never 
profecuted their fuit to an iffue. Mafon 


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died. The Colony kept poflcflion 
under Abimeleck, their created King of 
Mohegin. About ten years ago, the 
heirs of Mafon and Harrifon petitioned 
Government to decree that Dudley's ver- 
didt fhould be enforced ; but the Colonics 
found means to confound the claim of 
thofe competitors, without eftablifhing 
their own. The truth is, neither the Co- 
lonifts, nor Mafon and Harrifon, ever had 
any deed or title to thofc lands from Saf- 
facus, or his heirs; their deeds fprung 
from Uncas, already mentioned, a rebel 
fubjedt of Saflacud, without any royal 
blood in his veins:— ncverthelefc, Mr. 
Neal, and others who have written Hit 
tories of New-England, have taken efpe* 
cial care to vindicate the juftice of the 
fettlcrs, who always, as they fay, con* 
fcientioufly purchafed their lands of Sa* 

<:hems. 1 have given the Reader fome 

idea of the porchafes of the firft colo* 
nizers in Conncdticut, who, by their ini- 


quitous art of making Sachems, have en- 
tailed law-fuits without end on their pos- 
terity ; for there is not one foot of land 
in the whole province which is not co- 
vered by ten deeds granted by ten different 
nominal Sachems to ten different perfons: 
and, what aggravates the misfortune, the 
Courts of juftice differ every feflion con- 
cerning the true Sachem j fo that what 
the plaintiff recovers at a hearing before 
one jury, he lofes upon a re-hearing be- 
fore another. 

Enough, furely, has been faid to nullify 
the Colonifts plea of having bought their 
lands of the Indians. As to any pur- 
chafes made of the Saybrook fettlers, 
thofe at Hertford totally declined them, 
till the farcical bufinefs refpedting their 
charter came into agitation between the 
two junto's who procured it, of which 
I fhall fpeak hereafter : and fo far were 
the people of Newhaven from buying 
any right of Fenwick or his affociates, 


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that they fcorned the idea of claiming 
under them ; nay, it was even one of 
their principal views in the machinations 
wherein they were continually employed, 
to reduce the Saybrook Colony under the 
tyranny of their own Dominion, as having 
no more title to the country than pof- 
feflion gave them. And upon any other 
fuppofition, it is impoffible to account 
for the negleft of the colonizers of Hert- 
ford to fecure their lands by fuch a 
purchafe, feeming as they did to ranfack 
heaven and earth for a title fatisfa&ory 
even in their own eyes : they were con- 
fcious no purchafe of that kind could 
give them firmer footing than they had 
already. The truth therefore, undoubted- 
ly, is, that Fenwick and Peters had no legal 
right to fell the lands they occupied, what- 
ever might be their pretentions ; — nor, in- 
deed, did they pretend to the power of fel- 
ing more on their own account than was 
granted tothemfeverally by their patrons the 



Lords Say and Brook, which cannot be 
fappofed but an inconfidcrablc proportion 

of their American property. No 

wonder, then, that we find another 
claim fet up ; — a claim by conqueft. 
This was particularly agreeable to the 
genius of the Hertford and Newhaven 
heroes ; but will, neverthelefs, appear to 
make as little for their right as their 
honour, from the following confide- 
rations : — Firft, the invaders did not find 
Conne&icut in a ftate of nature, but cul- 
tivated and fettled by its Indian inhabi- 
tants, whofe numbers were thoufands, and 
who had three kings, viz. Connedticote, 
Quinnipiog, and Saflacus, of whom Con- 
nedticote was Emperor, or King of 
Kings; a dignity he and his anceftors 
had enjoyed, according to the Indian 
mode of reckoning, twenty flicks *; i. e. 
time immemorial. Secondly, they had 


* The Indian mode of counting is from One N 
Co Twenty, fcvery year they cut a notch in a 

Hick - 9 

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no authority to invade, make war upon, 
and conquer, the Indians, who were 
not at war with the King of England, 
nor his patentees, or their affigns. And, 
Thirdly, feizures, without legal com- 
miffion, of however long (landing, do not 
convey right or title by the Engliffx 

Feeling the weight of thefe con- 
fiderations, the Colonifls have been obliged 
to found their claim to the country on 
their charter, which was obtained in 
1662, .more than twenty -fix years after 
they had taken pofleffion. Here again, 
they are deftitute of fupport ; for the 
King, any more than his fubje&s, could 
not give to others the property of the 
Duke of Hamilton, unlefs his title had 
been proved to be forfeited by due 

ftick ; and, when the flick is full, or has twenty - 
notches on it, they lay it up, and take another • 
When they have thus cut twenty flicks, they rec- 
kon no more ; the number of twenty times 
twenty, with them, becomes infinite, or incom- 



courfe of law.^ But the charter created no 
title it merely conferred on the people 
the authority of a legal corporation, with- 
out conveying any title to the lands. And, 
indeed, the prevarications of the Colonifts 
themfelves in regard to their charter- 
claim, fufficiently explode it. Whenever 
they find their property affedted by any 
duty, cuflom, &c. impofed by Parliament, 
and warranted by charter, they allege that 
they got the lands in pojfl'ejjion by their own 
aw?> without the aid of the King and 
Parliament of Great-Britain ; as Charles II. 
allowed in granting the charter, which 
, conveyed no title, but was founded upon 
the title they poflefled before the date of it. 
At other times, when thefe felfifli tem- 
porizers find it convenient, either for pro- 
moting their own, or preventing their 
neighbours encroachments, then they 
plead their charter as the one only thing 
needful to prove their right of land even 
to the South Sea itfelf ! 



In fhort, and upon the whole, Pof- 
feffion, begun in Ufurpation, is the beft 
titfe the inhabitants of Connecticut ever 
had, or can fet up, unlefs they can 
prove they hold the lands by an heavenly 
grant, as the Ifraelites did thofe of Canaan. 
This heavenly title was, indeed, fet up by 
Peters, Hooker, and Davenport, the three 
firft minifters that fettled in Connecticut 5 
and is generally believed through the Co- 
lony to this day. They thus fyllogiftically 
ftated it : — The Heathen are driven out, 
and we have their lands in poffeffion ; they 
were numerous, and we but few $ therefore 
the Lord hath done this great work, to 
give his beloved refl. 

Thus much for the various pretenfions 
of the occupiers of Connecticut in regard 
to their right to the foil. I £hall now give 
fome account of the proceedings of the 
firft fettlers with refpedt to their religious 
and civil eftablifliments ; and of their 
political tranfaCtions, &c. &c. 



The party which fettled at Saybrook un- 
der George Fenwick, Efq. and the Rev. 
Thomas Peters, in 1634, contented them- 
felves, in framing the polity of their civil 
conftitution, with the laws of England, 
and a few local regulations. As to their 
ecclefiaftical inftitutions, they voted them- 
felves to be a Church independent on 
Lord-bi(hops, and Mr. Peters to be their 
minifter, whofe epifcopal ordination was 
deemed good, notwithftanding he had 
been filenced in England. They voted 
prefbyters to be bifhops, and poffefled of 
power to ordain minifters, when invited 
by a proper number of people formed 
into a fociety by licence from the Go- 
vernor. They voted that a certain part 
of the Liturgy of the Church of England 
might be ufed ; the Lord's Prayer, and 
the Apoftles Creed, together with one 

Chapter in the Bible, to be read at mor* 
ning and evening fervice, or omitted, at 
the difcretion of the Minifter: — that 


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* » ■ * • • 

tempore prayers might be ufed at the 
pleafure of the Minifter; but that the fur- 
plice fliould not be worn, nor fliould the 
fign of the crofs at baptifms, the cere- 
mony of the ring at marriages, or faints- 
days, &c. &c. be obferved, as in the 
Church of England : — that every fociety 
licenfed by the Governor, after having a 
Minifter ordained over it, be a complete 
Church, and inverted with the keys of 
difcipline, dependent only upon Chrift, 
the head of his Church : — that the Mi- 
nifter fliould be the judge of the quali- 
fications for church- memberfliip, and 
fliould cenfure diforderly walkers :— that 
the members in full communion fliould 
have power over the Minifter, and might 
difmifs him from his parifh, by a majority 
of voices, and with the confent of the 
Governor: — that all children were the 
objedts of Baptifm, and that none fliould 
be debarred that facrament for the fins of 
their parents, provided an orderly liver 

D would 



would engage to bring them up In the 
ways of Chriftianity: — that all fober per- 
fons might partake of the Lord's-Supper, 
provided theMinifter, upon examination, 
fhbuld find them fufficiently acquainted 
with their doty: — that what is commonly 
called Converfion, is not abfofutely necef- 
fliry before receiving the Lord's Supper, 
becaufe that facrament is a converting or- 
dinance : — that all Gofpel Minifters were 
Upon an equality in office > and that it 
wis the bufinefs of every one to admonifh 
a tranfgreflbr, privately in the firft place, 
and next, if no attention was paid to his 
advice, before his Deacons; then, if their 
admonition was diffegarded, the offender 
fhould be prefented to the Church, (that 
is, the Minifter, Deacons, and Communi- 
cants, united by the keys of difcipline,) 
and, upon his ftill continuing refra&ory, 
lie (houlcl be cenfured and rejedled by the 
majority of voters, without any ap- 
peal : — that Deacons fhould be chdferi by 


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the Miniftet 1 and Cbrnmutitcants, opon a 
rtiajority of voices, and ordained by the 
Minifter, according to the holy pra&ice 
of St. Paul :— that it was the duty of the 
Governor and civilMagiftrates to proteft 
and nurtere the Chttfch, but not to go- 
vern it ; becaufe Chrift's authority given 
to his Church wa$ above principalities 
and all civil powers : — &c. Sec. 

The fettlers at Hertford, having de- 
clared themfelves to be an independent 
Cdlony, and that their dominion extend- 
ed from fea to fea, voted Haynes to be 
their Governor, and appointed fix Coun- 
fdlors to afiift him in framing laws and 
regiilating the ftate. The fame fpirit of 
independence didated their church-dif- 
cipline. They voted Mr. Hooker to be 
their Minifter, and fix of their church- 
members to ordain him. Mr. Hooker 
accepted of their vote or call, renounced 
his epifcopal ordination, and was ordained 
by the fix lay church-members over the 

D 2 Church 


Church of the independents in Hertford. 
Thus Mr* Hooker, who was born in 
Leicefterfhire, educated in Cambridge, 
ordained by a Bifhop, filenced by a 
Bifoop in 1630, in England, and re-or- 
dained by fix laymen in America, became, 
what he wifhed to be, the head of the 
independents in the Dominion of Hert- 
ford, where he had the honour and plea- 
fure of exercifing, over all who differed 
from him in opinion, that violent fpirit 
of perfecution which he and his friends 
fo clamoroufly decried as too intolerant 
to be endured in England. Some of the 
charadteriftic do&rines of this perfecuting 
fanatic were of the following purport :— r 
That Chrift's Church is not univerfal, 
but a particular, vifible Church formed 
by general confent and covenant : — that 
Chrift has committed the power of bind- 
ing and loofing to believers, without any 
diftin&ion between clergy and laity : — 
that ruling and preaching elders are duly 


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ordained to their office by the eledtion 
and the impofition of the hands of the 
people :— that the tables and feals of the 
' covenant, the offices and cenfures of 
drift's Church, the adminiftration of all 
his public worfhip and ordinances, are in 
the ccetus Jidelium, or combination of 
godly, faithful men, met in one con- 
gregation : — that a diocefan, provincial or 
national affembly, is incompatible with 
the nature of Chrift's Church ; feeing all 
and every member of Chrift's Church arc 
to meet every Lord's-day in one place, for 
the adminiftration of the holy ordinances 
of God : — that a multitude of free people 
may eledt and ordain a king over them, 
although they were not, prior to the adt, 
poffefled of kingly power ; for the people 
of Ifrael impofed their hands on the 
Levites, when they themfelves were not 
Levites ;*-Numb. viii. 10.- — that nature 
has given virtual power to a free people 
to fet up any chriftian form of govern- 

D 3 mcnt, 



mcnt, both in Church and State* which 
they fee beft for tfaemfelves in the land ; 
but Chrift gave the power of the Key? 
to his church, *. e. to his believing peo- 
ple, and not to Peter qr to Paul as mir 
nifters, but as profefled believers in conr 
jundion with the ceft of true believers ; 
--that the Church hath npt abfolute 
power to cfaufe whom it will j it bath 
minifterial power only to chafe whow 
Chrift hathchpfen, i,e.fach as he has gift? 
$d feted for the work of the jniniftry ; 
--that neither Popes, Bifhops, .nor Pjefr 
byters, are wcel&ry to ordain Minjfters of 
jfefias Chrift becaufe the power of tj>p 

Joeys is given by Chrift to his Cfewpb, *. 
the people in covenant with God >— that, 
as ordination is in the powe<r of eapji 
Church, no Church hath power over 
another, but all ftand in brotherly equa- 
lity :-~ -that it is unlawful for any Church 
of Chrift to put out of its hand that 

power whiph Chrift has given to it, into 


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the hands of other Churches :— that no 
one Church ought to fend to Minifters 
of other Churches to ordain its Minifters, 
or to cenfure its offenders : — that Bap- 
tifm does not make any-one a member 
of Chrift's church, becaufe papifts and 
other heretics are baptized ; therefore, to 
be a member of Chrift's Church, is to own 
the covenant of that particular Church 
where God has placed fuch member : — 
that feven perfons may form a church of 
Chrift, but j 5,000 cannot, becaufe fuch 
a number cannot meet in one place, nor 
hear, nor partake, nor be edified toge- 
ther : — th^t ^9 oqe can partake of the 
Lorf s-Supper, till he be converted and 
has m^n^eftod his faith and repentance 
before the Church : — &c. &c. 


The laws made by the Governor and 
Council of Hertford are, in general, much 
0/ the fame ftamp with thofc of the 
.Ne\yhay$n legiflatprs, of fome of which 
an abftraft will be given hereafter. 

D 4 The 


The fanatics at Newhaven, in like 
manner with thofe of Hertford, voted 
themfelves to be a Dominion independent, 
and chofe Eaton for their Governor, and 
Davenport for their Minifter. The Go- 
vernor and a Committee had the power 
of making laws for the State, and the 
Minifter, aflifted by Deacons and Elders, 
was to rule the Church. The following 
is a fpecimen of, the tenets eftablifhed 
by Davenport in the latter : — That Chrift 
has conveyed all Power -to his people 
both in Church and State ; which Power 
they are to exercife until Chrift fliall re- 
turn on Earth, to reign iooo years over 
his militant Saints : — that all other Kings, 
befides Chrift and his ele&ed People, are 


peftilent ufurpers and enemies to God 
and Man : — that all Vicars, Redtors, 
Deans, Priefts, and Bifhops, are of the 
Devil; are Wolve9, petty Popes, and 
antichriftian Tyrants :— that Pallors and 
Teachers of particular Congregations are 


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of Chrift, and muft be chofcn by his 
people ; /. e. the eledt and chofen from 
the foundation of the world ; or elfc 
their entrance and miniftry are unlawful : — 
that all things of human invention in the 
worfliip of God, fuch as are in the Mafs- 
book and Common-Prayer, are unfavory 
in the fight of God : — that ecclefiaftical 
cenfures ought to be exerched by the 
Members of particular Congregations 
among themfelves : — that the People 
fhould not fuffer this fupreme power to 
be wrefted out of their hands, until Chrift 
fhall begin his reign :---that all good 
people ought to pray always that God 
would raze the old Papal foundation of 
epifcopal government, together with the 
filthy ceremonies of that antichriftian 
Church :---that every particular who 
negledts this duty, may juftly fear' that 
curfe pronounced againfl Meroz, — 
Judg. v. 23, Curfe ye Meroz ; becaufe they 
came not to help the Lord againft the 



mighty enemies of God and his Church 
that every particular Congregation is an 
abfolute Church ; the members of it arc 
to be all Saints thofe muft enter into 
covenant among themfelves, and without 
fuch a covenant .there can be jio jChurch : — 
that it is an heinous fin to be prefent 
wjben prayers are read out of a book by 
a Vicar or Bifliop : — that fubje&s pra- 
mife obedience to obtain hplp from the 
Magiftratcs, and are difcharged from their 
promife when the ft^agiftrates foil in their 
duty -.-—that, without liberty from the 
Prince or Magiftrate, the People may 
reform the Church and State, and muft 
not wait for the Magiftrates : — &c. &c. 
This Dominion, this tyrant of ty- 
rants, adopted the Bible for its code of ci- 
vil laws, till others fhould be made more 
fuitable to its circumftances. The pro- 
vifion was politic. The lawgivers foon 
difcovered that the precepts in the Old 
and New Teftaments were inefficient to 


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fyppott thetn in their arbitrary and 
bloody undertakings : they, therefore, 
g$v£ themfelyes up to their own inventions 
jn ffl&king others, wherein, in forne in- 
ltm**> they betrayed fuch an extreme 
4egrse of wanton cruelty and oppreffion, 
th&t even th$ rigid fanatics of Bofton, 
#pd tjbe mftd Zje^lpt§ of Hertford, pqt 
0 the blu£h, chriftene4 them the Blue 
faws% and the former held a day of 
tbaflJ^ying, becaufe God, to his gopd 
proyi^ljenct, had' jftationed Ea*on and 
J)$venport fo for frpjn them. 

Tl^e religous fyfteim eftablifhed by Pe- 
ters at Saybfpok w*s weJ I calculated to 
pleafejthe (Epde/ate Puritans and zealots 
x>f all denominations ; but the fanatics of 
Hbe M^ffachufets-Bay, who hated every 
part of theiGqmmon-Prayer-bpok worfe 
than the Council of Trent and the papal 
power e^ercifed oyer heretics, were alarm- 
ed at the condudt of the half-reformed 
jfchifmatigs in that colony j and, thinking 



that their dear Salem might be endangered 
by fuch impure worfhipers, confented, 
in the year 1636, to give Mr. Hooker 
and his affociates liberty to emigrate to 
Hertford, notwithftanding the preceding 
year they had refufed fuch liberty, feeing 
then no reafon for Hooker's feizing the 
territory of other people. But when the 
New-England Vine was fuppofed to be 
threatened by the Bible,Lord's- Prayer, and 
Ten Commandments, the pious people of 
Maflachufets-Bay permitted Hooker, in 
1636, to remove into and govern Con- 
necticut by their authority, and to impede 
and break up the worfliip of the Peterites 
in Saybrook. Hooker was faithful to his 
truft, excepting that, when he got to 
Hertford, he rejedted the authority of his 
employers in the Maflachufets-Bay, fet up 
a new dominion, and perfecuted the Pe- 
terites under his own banner, though he 
called it the banner of Jefus.— But for 
his and Davenport's tyrannical conduft, 


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the Colony at Saybrook would have lived 
in peace with the Indians, as they did till 
their artful and overbearing neighbours 
brought on a general war between them 
and the Englifh, which ended with the 
death of Saffacus and the deftrudtion of 
all his fubjefts. After that war, great 
diflention arofc among the conquerors. 
Fenwick was fenfible, of a calm dif- 
pofition, and very religious ; yet not en- 
tirely void of ambition. He claimed the 
government of all Conne&icut, and in- 
filled upon payment for fuch lands as 
were pofleffed by Hooker and Davenport, 
and their affociates : this, he faid, was but 
common juftice due to his conftituents, 
the Lords Say and Brook. Hooker and 
Davenport, however, were not fond of his 
doftrine of juftice, but made religion, 
liberty, and power, the greater objedts of 
their concern ; wherein they were fup- 
ported by the people of Maffachufets- 
Bay, whofe fpirits were congenial with 


4« H t s f 0 k V d r 

thfcifoton. Hehteftboppbrtuttity^ldft 

of prejudicing Saybrbok ; and thd troubks 
in the Mother-Country furnifhed their 
enemies with many. One ftep thty tdbk, 
in particular, operated ftiuch to its dif- 
ad vantage. The Maflachiifets Colbfiy, ea- 
ger to againft Charles I. agreed With 
thofe Of Hertford and Newhaveil, NeW- 
hampfhire, and Rhode-Iflahd, ro fend 
agents to England, afibririg the Houfe - 
of Commons of their readinefs to 
againft the King and Bifliops. The Say- 
brook fettlers, though zealous againft tht 
Biftfops, were not much inclined -t6 're- 
bellion againft their King, and therefore 
took no part in this tranfaftion. As tht 
royal caufe loft ground in England, the 
apprehenfions of this Colony increafed ; 
and Fenwick, finding himfelf unfupport- 
ed by the Lords Say and Brook, thought 
it prudent to difpofe of his colonial pro- 
perty to Peters and his affociate*, and re*- 
turn to England. Confufiori being fcftai- 


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fcKfhfcd in England, moderation became 
in unp&rdontable fin in Saybrook, which 
Both the heighbouring Colonies were rea- 
dy io ptfriifh by afiuming the jurifdi&ionr 
there: mutual jealoufy alone prevented it. 
At length, during Cromwell's ufurpation, 
tht inhabitants*, fearing the effefts of his 
difpleaftire for not joining in the above- 
mentioned addrefs to the Commons in 
Ehgland, and efpecially left he fhould 
put them under the power of the furious 
Davenport, and at the fame time fore- 
teeirig fid profpedt of the Reftoration, 
judged It advifeable, by way of preferring 
the leffer to the greater evil, to form a 
fort of alliance and jundlion with the 
people of Hertford, where Hooker now 
lay riuftibered with the dead. The Colony 
was not only hereby enabled to maintain its 
groufid, but flourifhed greatly ; and the 
Mihlfter, Thomas Peters, eftabtifhed a 
fchool in Saybrook, which his children 
had the latisfa&ion to fee become a 



College, denominated Yale College, of 
which a particular account will be given 
in the courfe of this work. He was a 
churchman of the puritanic order, zea- 
lous, learned, and of a mild difpofition ; 
and frequently wrote to his brother Hugh 
at Salem *, to exercife more moderation, 
left <c overmuch zeal fhould ruin him 
and the caufe they were embarked in." 


* William, Thomas, and Hugh Peters, were 
brothers, and born at Fowey, in Cornwall, in 
Old England. Their Father was a merchant of • 
great property ; and their Mother was Elizabeth 
TrefFry, Daughter of John Treffry, Efq. of a very 
ancient and opulent family in Fowey. — William 
was educated at Leyden, Thomas at Oxford, 
and Hugh at Cambridge uriiverfities. — About 
the years 1610 and 1620, Tbomas and Hugh 
were clergymen in London, and William was a 
private gentleman.— About 1628, Thomas and 
Hugh, rendered obnoxious by their popularity 
and puritanifm, were filenccd by the Bifhop of 
London. --They then went to Holland, and re- 
mained there till 1633, when they returned to 
London. — The three brothers fold their lan <kd 
property, and went to New-England in 1634.— 



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At his death, which did not happen till 
after the Reftoration of Charles II. he 
bequeathed his library to the fchool above 


Hugh fettled at Salem, and became too popular 
for Mather and Cotton. He was foon appointed 
one of the Truftees of the College at New- 
Cambridge.— -He built a grand houfe, and pur- 
chafed a large trad-t. of land.— -The yard before 
his houfe he paved with flint-ftones from Eng- 
land 5 and, having dug a well, he paved that 
round with flint-ftones alfo, for the accommo- 
dation of every inhabitant in want of water. 
It bears the name of Peters's Spring to this day.— 
He married a fecond wife, by whom he had one 
daughter named Elizabeth. The renown of 
this zealot increafing, he received an invitation 
to remove from Salem to Bolton, and, complying 
with it, he tnere laid the foundation- ftone of 
the great Meeting-Houfe, of which the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Cooper, one of the moft learned of the 
Literati in America, is the prefent minifter. 
Mather and Cotton ill brooked being out-rivalled 
by Hugh ; yet, finding him an orthodox fanatic, 
and more perfect than themfelves, they feemingly 
bowed to his fuperiority, at the fame time that 
they laid a fnare for his deftru&ion. In 164 1 
thofe envious paftors confpired with the Court 
at Bofton to convert their Bifhop Hugh into a 

E Politician, 


The religious inftitutions of Hooker 
at Hertford were not only binding on the 
Dutch, but even extended to the great 
Connedticote himfelf. The Sachem did 


Politician, and appoint him agent to Great Bri- 
tain. ---The Plot luccecded j and Hugh aflumed 
bis agency under colour of petitioning for 
fome abatement of cuftoms and excife ; but 
his real commiifion was to foment the -civil 
difcontents, jars, and wars, then prevailing be- 
tween the King and Parliament — -Hugh did not 
fee into the policy of Mather and Cotton •, and 
he had a ftrong inclination to chaftife the Bifliops 
and Court, who . had turned him out of the 
Church for his fanatical conduct. On his arrival 
in London, the Parliament took him into 
their fervice. — The Earls of Warwick an4 
Eflex were alfo his patrons.— -In 1644, the 
Parliament gave him Archbifliop Laud's library ; 
and foon after made him Head of the Archbj&op's 
Court, and gave him his eftate and palace at 
Lambeth : — all which Hugh kept till the Rettor 
ration, when he paid for his zeal, his puritanifro, 

and rebellion, on a gibbet at Charing- Crofs. . 

His daughter married a merchant in Newport, 
Rhode-lfland, and lived and died with an ex- 
cellent characler.— -Her Father having met 
with fo tragical an end, I omit to mention her 


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not like his new neighbours ; he rcfufed 
to give or fell any land to them ; but 
told them, that, as they came to trade, 
and to fpread the Chriftian Religion 


Hufband's name, whofe Pofterity live in good 
reputation.-— — Governor Hutchinfon reports^ 
that the widow of Hugh Peters was fupported, 
till 167 1, by a collection at Salem, of 30!. per 
ann. Were this report true, it would be much to 
the reputation of Salem for having once relieved 
the unfortunate. Mr. Hutchinfon might have 
pointed out the caufe of the unhappy widow's ne- 
ceffity 5 but he has left that part to me, and here 
it follows: — After Hugh's Death, the fele&men 
of Salem were afraid that the King [Charles II.] 
would feize on his eftate in Salem, as had been 
the cafe in regard to what the Parliament had 
given him in England. They therefore trumped 
up a debt, and feized and fold the faid eftate to the 
families of Lyndes and Curwin, who pofTefs it to 
the prefent time;— and the fele&men of Salem 
allowed the widow 30I. per ann. for the wrong 
they had done her and her daughter. It 
is not likely that the widow was fupported by 
any charitable collection ; for William Peters 
was a man of great property, and had a deed 
of the whole peninfula whereon Bofton (lands, 
which he purchafed of Mr. Blaxton, who 

E 2 bought 



among his fubje&s, which Mr. Hooker 
defined toconfift only in peace, love, and 
juftice, he had no obje&ion to their build- 
ing wigwams, planting com, and hunt- 

bought it of the Plymouth Company ; though 
Mr. Hutchinfon fays Blaxton's title arofe merely 
from his fleeping on it^the firft of any Englilh- 
manf. — This was well faid by Mr. Hutchin- 
fon, who wanted to jufti fy the people of Salem 
in feizing the land and expelling Mr. Blaxton 
from his fettlement in 1630, becaufe he faid he 
liked Lords- Brethren lefs than Lords-Bifhops. — 
Moreover, Thomas Peters, at the fame time, was 
living at Saybrook, and was not poor.-r-Thofe 
two Gentlemen were able and willing to fupport 
the widow of an unfortunate brother whom they 
loved very tenderly.— They took great care of 
his daughter, and left her handfome legacies. — 
From thefe confiderations, I am induced to 

believe, that the widow of Hugh Peters never 


f The Rev. Mr. Blaxton had lived on Shawmut, or the 
peninfula on which Bofton is built, above nine years before 
June, ^630, when he was driven away from hi* poflTefiions 
by the pious people of Salem, becaufe he was not pleafcd 
with the religious fyttem of thofe new - comers. --They 
were fo generous as to vote a final I lot to Mr. Blaxton, 
near Bofton- Neck, as a compenfation for the whole pe- 
ninfula, and for his banimment on pain of death not to 
feturn. Blaxton afterwards fold his right to Wil- 
liam Peters, Efrj. but who was kept out of polfcflion of it 
by thefupreme power of the People.- — 

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ing on his lands. The wifdom and 
fteady temper of this great Sachem, and 
the vaft number of fubjedls at his com- 
mand, made Haynes and Hooker cautious 


fublifted on any contributions, except what (he 
received from her brothers William and Thomas 
Peters.— —Mr. Hutchinfon makes a curious 
remark, viz. If Hugh Peters had returned to 
his pariOi, he would not have fuffered as he did. — 
He might have faid, with greater propriety, that, 
if Hugh Peters had not been a fanatic and a rebel 
more zealous than wife, he never would have 
left his Parifii for the agency of the people of 
New-England, who never paid him the ftipulated 
allowance for his fupport in England, tho* he 
gave them thankfgiving-days, inftead of fading, 
for the fpace of twenty years, and procured, in 
1649, from Oliver Cromwell, a charter for the 
Company for propagating the Gofpel in New- 
England, which, by contributions raifed in 
England, have fupported all the milfionaries 
among the Indians to the prefent time;— yet Mr. 
Hutchinfon and Neal write largely about the 
vaft expence the Maflachufets-Bay have been 
at in fpreading the Gofpel among the poor fa- 
vages ! 

1 cannot forbear here to notice an abufe of 
this charter. Notwithftanding it confines the 

E 3 views 


in their conduit. Many people of Maf- 
fachufets-Bay, hearing that Hooker had 
made good terms with the Sachem, left 
their perfecutors, and fled to the fertile 


views of the Company to New-England, yet they, 
and their Committee»of Correfpondence in Bofton, 
have of late years vouchfafed to fend moft of their 
Miflionaries out of New-England, among the 
Six Nations, and the unfandiified epifcopalians in 
the Southern Colonies, where was a competent 
number of church clergymen. Whenever 
this work of fupererogation has met with its de- 
fended animadverfion, their anfwer has been, 
that, though Cromwell limited them to New- 
England, yet Chrift had extended their bounds 
from fea to fea ! With what little reafon do they 
complain of King William's charter to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gofpel in 
Foreign Parts ? This Society have fent Miflion- 
aries to New-England, where they have an un- 
doubted right to fend them, to fupply epifcopal 
Churches already eftablifhed there ; whereas the 
other Society fend Miflionaries beyond the limits 
of their charter, to alienate the minds of the epif- 
copal Indians of the Six Nations, againft the 
epifcopal Miflionaries and the Government of 
the Mother-Country.— -And they have been too 
fuccefsful ; especially fmce the Rev. Dr. Eleazer 


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banks of Connecticut* that they might 
help Hooker fpfead the Gofpel among 
the poor benighted Heathen in the 
wildernefs. The Reverend Mr. Huet, 
with his difciples, fixed at Windfor, eight 
miles north of Hertford ; and the Reve- 
rend Mr. Smith, at Weathersfield, four 
miles fouth of it* In the fpace of 
eighteen months, the Dominion of Hert^ 
ford contained feven-hundred white peo- 
ple, and feven independent churches. Ha* 
ving converted over to the Chriftian faith 
fome few Indians, among whom was 
Jofhua, an ambitious captain under the 
great Sachem Conne&icote, Hooker, 

Wheelock, Dr. Whitaker, and the Rev. Mr* 
Sampfbn Occom, by the Charity of England, 
have joined in the fame work.-— To the General 
Aflembly, and the Confociation of Connecticut, 
Dr. Wheelock and his aflbciates are much be- 
holden for their fuccefs in converting the poor 
benighted favages in the howling wildernefs. 
Their merits are great, and tlieir reward is pend- 

E 4 " Huet, 


Huet, Smith, and others, hereby found 
means to fpread the. Go/pel into every 
Indian town, and, to the eternal infamy 
of chriftian policy, thofe renowned, pious 
fathers of this new colony, with the Gof- 
pel, fpread the fmall-pox. This diftem- 
per raged in every corner : it fwept away 
the great Sachem Connedticote, and laid 
wade his ancient kingdom. Hereupon, 
Haynes and his affembly proclaimed 
Jofhua Sachem; and fuch as did not 
acknowledge his fachemic power, were 
compelled to fuffer death, or fly the Do- 
minion. Thus in three years time, by 
the Gofpel and fanatic policy, was de- 
ftroyed Connecticote, the greatefl king in 
North-America. This remarkable event 
was confide red as the work of the Lord ; 
and the favage nations were told that the 
like calamities would befal them, unleft' 
they embraced the Gofpel of Jefus Chrift. 
Jofhua was grateful to the Englifh who 
had made him Sachem, and gave them 


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deeds of thofe lands which had conftant- 
ly been refufed by Conne&icote. But 
Jofliua had as little honour as virtue and 
loyalty : he fupported himfelf many years 
by figning deeds, and gulled the Englifli 
through their own imprudence in neg- 
ledting to make a law for recording them. 
— Thefe colonifts, having driven out the 
Heathen, and got poffeflion of a land 
which flowed with milk and honey, 
expelled the Dutch, as a dangerous fet 
of heretics ; — and Hooker, after doing fo 
much for this new Dominion, expeded 
the homage from every Church which 

is only due to a Bifhop. This homage, 
however, he could not obtain, becaufe 

each Minifter had pretenfions not much 
inferior to his. Difputes arofe about 
Dodrine and Difcipline. Hooker taught 
that there were forty-two kinds of Grace, 
though all of little value, except that of 
" faving Grace." As to Difcipline, he 
held, that, as he had received his mini- 




fterkl ordination from the Laity whd 
were members in full communion, he 
Confidered thofe actual communicants 
as Cbrifl's Church here on earthy and con- 
sequently as holding the keys of difcipfine ; 
and he maintained, that the Minifter had 
but a fingje voice, and was a fubjcft of the 
Church. Other Minifters, Who had re- 
ceived epifcopal ordination, but had been 
filenced by their Biflhops, judged thenv 
felves, notwith (landing, to be Minifters 
of Chrift j and alleged that the inftaHatlon 
of a Minifter by prayer and impofition 
df hands of lay communicants, was no 
ordination, but a ceremony only of put- 
ting a Miniftet' in pofleffion of his Church, 
from which he might be difmifled by a 
majority of voters of the Members in full 
communion. And thofe Minifters taught 
for dodtrine, that mankind were faved by 
Grace, and that the Gofpel told us of but 
one Grace as neceffary to Salvation ; for 
that he who believes that Jefus is the Son 



» J 

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of God> is born of God, and enjoys the Grace 
of God which brings Salvation. The 
majority of the People of courfe were on 
the fide of Mr. Hooker, as his plan efta- 
blifhed their power over the Minifter ; 
and they foon determined by vote, accor- 
ding to their code of laws, in his favour. 
But the Minifters and minority were 
not convinced by this vote, and, to 
avoid an excommunication, formed them- 
felves into feparate bodies ; neverthelefs, 
they foon felt the thundering anathemas 
of Hooker, and the heated vengeance of 
the civil power. However, perfecution, 
by her certain confequence, fixed the 
feparatifts in their fchifm, which conti- 
nues to the prcfent time. — Hooker reign- 
ed twelve years high-prieft over Hertford 5 
and then died above fixty years of age, to 
the great joy of the feparatifts, but, in 
point of populoufnefs, to the difadvantage 
of the colony of Saybrook, which was the 
little Zoar for Hooker's heretics. 



Exadt in tything mint and anife, the 
furies of Newhaven for once affedted the 
weightier matters of juftice. They had no 

title to the land : they applied to Quinni* 
piog, the Sachem, for a deed of grant of it* 
The Sachem refufed to give the lands of his 
anceftors to ftrangers. The fettlers had 
teeming inventions, and immediately voted 
themfelves to be the Children of God, and 
that the wildernefs in the utmolt parts of 
the earth was given to them. This vote 
became a law forever after. It is true, 
Davenport endeavoured to cbriftianize 
Quinnipiog, but in vain : however, he 
converted Sunkfquaw, one of his fubjedts, 
by prefents and great promifes ; and then 
Sunkfquaw betrayed his mafter, and the 
fettlers killed him. This aflafiination of 
Quinnipiog brought on a war between 
the Englifti and Indians, which never 
ended by treaty of peace. The Indians, 
having only bows and arrows, were dri- 
ven back into the woods ; whilft the 


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Englifii, with their fwords and guns, 
kept pofleflion of the country. But, con- 
fcious of their want of title to it, they 
voted Sunkfquaw to be Sachem, and that 
whoever difputed his authority (hould 
fuffer death. Sunkfquaw, in return, af- 
figned to the Englifh thofe lands of which 
they had made him Sachem. Lo ! here is 
all the title the fettlers of the Dominion of 

Newhaven ever obtained. The cruel 

and bloody perfecutions under Eaton and 
Davenport in Newhaven foon gave rife to 
feveral little towns upon the fea-coaft. 
Emigrants from England arrived every 
year to fettle in this Dominion ; but few 
remained in Newhaven, on account of 
Eaton, Davenport ,the Deacons,and Elders, 
who poffeffed all power there, and were 
determined to keep it. The new-comers, 
therefore, under pretence of fpreading 
Chrift's kingdom, and fhunning perfec- 
tion, joined with the fettlers at Stamford, 
Guilford, and Stratford, where, however, 



perfccution domineered with as much fury 
as at Newhaven ; for each town judged 
itfelf to be an independent Dominion j 
though, for fear of the Dutch and the 
Indians, they formed a political union, 
and fwore to bear true allegiance to the 
capital Newhaven, whofe authority was 
fupreme. As all officers in every town 
were annually eledled by the freemen, 
and as there were many candidates, fomc 
of whom muft be unfuccefsful, there was 
always room for complaints. The com- 
plainants formed fchifms in the Church, 
which brought on perfecution ; and per- 
fection drove the minority to fettle 
new towns, in order to enjoy Liberty, 
Peace, and Power to perfecute fuch as 
differed from them. Thus lived thofc 
ambitious people, under far worfe perfe- 
ctions from one another than they ever 
experienced or complained of in Old Eng- 
land 5 all which they endured with fome 
degree of patience, the perfccuted one 

t year 

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y$gr living in hopes that the next would 
enable them to retaliate on their per- 

The laws made by this independent 
Dominion, and denominated Blue-Laws 
by the neighbouring Colonies, were never 
fuffered to be printed ; but the following 
ftetch of fome of them will give a tole- 
rable idea of the fpirit which pervade* 

the whole, 

* c The Governor and Magiftrates, coj*- 
yened in general Aflembly,are the fupreme 
power under God of this independent 


From the determination of the Affem- 
Wy no appeal (hall be made. 

The Governor is amenable to the voice 
of the people. 

The Governor fhall have only a fingle 
vote in determining any queftion ; except 
a cafting vote, when the Aflembly may 
be equally divided. 

The Aflembly of the People fliall not 



be difmiffed by the Governor, but fliall 
difmifs itfelf. 

Confpiracy againft this Dominion fliall 
be puniflied with death. 

Whoever fays there is a power and 
jurifdidtion above and over this Dominion, 
fliall fuffer death and lofs of property. 

Whoever attempts to change or over- 
turn this Dominion fliall fuffer death. 

The judges fliall determine controver- 
fies without a jury. 

No one fliall be a freeman, or give a 
vote, qnlefs he be converted, and a mem- • 
ber in full communion of one of the 
Churches allowed in this Dominion. 

No man fliall hold any office, who is 
not found in the faith, and faithful to this 
Dominion; and whoever gives a vote to 
fuch a perfon, fliall pay a fine of il. for 
a fecond offence, he fliall be disfran- 

Each freeman fliall fwear by the bleff- 
ed God to bear true allegiance to this 


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Dominion, and that Jefus is the only 
King. • 

No quaker or diflenter from the 
eftabiifhed worfhip of this Dominion (hall 
be allowed to give a vote for the clcdtion 
of Magiftrates, or any officer. 

No food or lodging fhall be afforded 
to a Quaker, Adamite, or other Heretic. 

If any perfon turns Quaker, he fhall be 
baniflied, and not fuffered to return but 
upon pain of death. 

No Pried: (hall abide in the Dominion : 
he (hall be banifhed, and luffer death on 
his return. Priefts may be feized by any 
one without a warrant. 

No one to crofs a river, but with an 
authorized ferryman. 

No one (hall run on the Sabbath-day, 
or walk in his garden or elfewhere, 
except reverently to and from meeting. 

No one fliall travel, cook victuals, 
' make beds, fweep houfe, cut hair, or 
(have, on the Sabbath-day. 

F No 


No woman (hall kifs her child on the 
SaBbath or fafting-day. 

The Sabbath (hall begin at funfet on 

To pick an ear of corn growing in a 
neighbour's garden, ihall be deemed 

A perfon accufed of trefpafs in the 
night (hall be judged guilty, unlefs he 
clear himfelf by his oath. 

When it appears that an accufed has 
confederates, and he refufes to difcover 
them, he may be racked. 

No one (hall buy or fell lands without 
permiflion of the fele&men. 

A drunkard (hall have a matter ap- 
pointed by the feledtmen, who are to 
debar him from the liberty of buying and 

Whoever publilhes a lye to the pre- 
judice of his neighbour, (hall (it in the 
flocks, or be whipped fifteen ftripes. 

No Minifter (hall keep a fchool. 


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Every -rateable perfon, who refufes to 
pay his proportion to the fupport of the 
Minifter of the town or parifh, (hall be 
fined by the Court 2/. and 4/. every 
quarter, until he or (he pay the rate to 
the Minifter. 

Men-ftealers (hall fuffer death. 

Whoever wears cloaths trimmed with 
gold, filver, or bone lace, above two (hil- 
lings by the yard, fhall be prefented by 
the grand jurors, and the fele&men fhall 
tax the offender at 300/. eftate. 

A debtor in prifon, fwearing he has no 
eftate, fhall be let out, and fold, to make 

Whoever fets a fire in the woods, and it 
burns a houfe, fhall fuffer death ; and per- 
forms fufpedled of this crime fhall be im- 
prifoned, without benefit of bail. 

Whoever brings cards or dice into this 
Dominion fhall pay a fine of 5/, 

No one fhall read Common-Prayer, 
keep Chriftmas or Saints- days, make 

F 2 minced 


minced pies, dance, play cards, or play on 
any inftrument of mufic, except the drum, 
trumpet, and jews-harp. 

No Gofpel Minifter fliall join people 
in marriage ; the Magiftrates only fliall 
join in marriage, as they may do it with 
lefs fcandal to ChrifVs Church f. 

When parents refufe their children con- 
venient marriages, the Magiftrates (hall 
determine the point. 

The fele&men, on finding children 
ignorant, may take them away from their 
parents, and put them into better hands, 
at the expence of their parents. 

Fornication fliall be punifhed by com- 
pelling marriage, or as the Court may 
think proper. 

Adultery (hall be puniflied with death. 

A man that ftrikes his wife fliall pay a 
fine of 9 iol. a woman that ftrikes her 

t The Savage Pawawwers, or Priefts, never ■ 
concern themfelvcs with marriages, but leave them 
to the Paniefh, or Magiftrates. 


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hufband (hall be punifhed as the Court 

A wife (hall be deemed good evidence 
againft her hufband. 

No man (hall court a maid in perfon, 
or by letter, without firft obtaining con^ 
fent of her parents : 5/. penalty for the 
firft offence; 10/. for the fecond ; and> 
for the third, imprifonment during the 
pleafure of the Court. 

Married perfons muft live together, or 
be imprifoned. 

Every male fhall have his hair cut 
round according to a cap*." 

Of fuch fort were the laws made by 
the people of Newhaven, previous to 
their incorporation with Saybrook and 
Hertford colonies by the charter. They 
confift of a vaft multitude, and were very 
properly termed Blue Laws ; i.e. bloody 

* The Levitical law forbids cutting the hair, 
or rounding the head. 

F 3 Laws ; 


Laws i for they were all fanftified with 
excommunication, confifcation, fines, ba- 
nifliment, whippings, cutting off the ears, 
burning the tongue, and death. Europe 
at this day might well fay the Religion 
of the firft fettlers at Newhaven was 
fanaticifm turned mad ; and did not fimi- 
Jar laws ftill prevail over New-England 
as the common law of the country, I 
would have left them in filence along 
with Dr. Mather's Patres confcripti, and 
the renowned Saints of Mr. Neal, to fleep 
to the end of time. No one, but a par- 
tial and blind bigot, can pretend to fay 
the projedtors of them were men of 
Grace, Juftice, and Liberty, when nothing 
but murders, plunders, and perfections, 
mark their fteps. The beft apology that 
can be made for them is, (I write in re- 
ference to thofe times,) that human nature 
is every-where the fame; and that the 
mitred Lord and canting Puritan are 
equally dangerous, or that both agree in 


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the unchriftian do&rine of perfecution, 
and contend only which (hall put it in prac- 
tice. Mr. Neal fays many call the firft 
Colonizers in New-England weak men 
for fepara ting from the Church of England, 
and fuffering perfections, rather than 
comply with indifferent ceremonies ; and, 
after afferting that they were men of great 
learning and goodnefs, he appeals to the 
world to judge, which were weak, the 
Biftiops or the Puritans ? My anfwer is, 
that thofe Puritans were weak men in Old 
England, and ftrong in New England, 
where they out- pop 'd the Pope, out- 
king'd the King, and out-bifhop'd the 
Bifhops. Their murders and perfecutions 
prove their ftrength lay in weaknefs, and 
their religion in ambition, wealth, and 

Notwithftanding the perpetual jealou- 
fy and difcordance between the three co- 
lonies of Connedticut, (Saybrook claiming 
the whole under the Lords Say and Brook, 

F 4 Hertford 


Hertford under Jehovah and Conqueft, 
and Newhaven under King Jefus and 
Conqueft,) they judged it necellary, for 
their better fecurity againft the Dutch and 
Indians, to ftrengthen each other's hands 
by forming a* general confederacy with 
the Colonics of New Plymouth and the 
Maffachufets-Bay. A meafure of this 
kind, which they formally entered into 
in 1643, proved of the moft falutary 
cbnfequence, in a war which many years 
after broke out between them and Philip, 
fachem of the Pokanoket Indians, and 
which, for fome time, imminently endan- 
gered the Colonies, but at length termi- 
nated in the deftrudion of that noted 
warrior and his followers. 

The death of Cromwell in 1658 ftruck 
an awe throughout all New- England, 
Hertford and Newhaven appointed their 
days of fading and prayer. Davenport 
prayed " the Lord to take the New-Eng- 
u land Vine under his immediate care, 

" as 

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te as he had removed by death the great 
" Prote&or of the proteftant liberty:" 
neverthelefs he lived to fee the time 
when Charles II. obtained the poflef- 
fion of his Father's crown and kingdom, 
in fpite of all his prayers. * However, in 
the midft of forrows, they were com- 
forted by the prefence of many regicides 
and refugees, who fled from England not 
fo much for religion as for liberty ; among 
whom wefeWhaley,GofFe, and Dixwell*, 
three of the judges and murderers of 
Charles I. Davenport and Leet the then 
Governor received them as Angels from 
Heaven, and bleffed God that they had 
efcaped out of the hands of " Herod the 
" fon of Barabbas." 

Newhaven Dominion being thus Sud- 
denly filled with inhabitants, faw itfelf 

* Dixwtil died and lies buried in Newhaven. 
His grave is vifitcd by the Jebtr dijjviters with great 
reverence and veneration ; nay, even held facred as 
the tomb at Mecca. Here are buried alfo the chil- 
dren of Colonel Jones, and many other rebels. 



enabled to fupport its independence, apd 
as ufual defpifed Hertford and Saybrook, 
and withal paid no attention to the 
King and Parliament of England. — The 
People of Maffachufets, who were ever for- 
ward in promoting their own confequence, 
obferving the temper and condudt of thofe 
of Newhaven, conceived an idea at once of 
exalting an individual of their own Pro- 
vince, and of attaching Hertford and 
Saybrook to their intereft for ever. They 
fent Mr. John Winthrop privately to Hert- 
ford, to promote a petition to Charles II. 
for a charter, as a fecurity againft the 
ambition of Newhaven. — The Bofto- 


nians boafted of having had the honour 
of fettling Hertford, which they therefore 
profefled to confider in the light of a 
near and dear connection. The propofal 
was accepted by the few perfons to whom 
it was communicated, but, in framing 
their petition, they found themfelves de- 
ficient in their title to the lands. This 



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obliged them to have recourfe to a Junto 
at Saybrook, who claimed a title under 
Lords Say and Brook. — A few pur- 
chafes, or rather exchanges, of land now 
took place between the Junto's after 
which a petition was drawn up, contain- 
ing an artful defcription of the lands 
claimed, " part of which they faid they 
had purchafed, and part they had con- 
quered." They then as privately ap- 
pointed Mr. Wiothrop their agent to ne- 
gociate the bufinefs in England, which 
he very willingly undertook. On his ar- 
rival here, he applied to the agents of 
\Jafiachufets-Bay, and with their affift- 
ance procured from the incaution of 
Charles II. as ample a charter as was ever 
given to a palatinate ftate 3 it covered not 
only Saybrook, Hertford, and Newhaven, 
but half New- York, Ncw-Jerfey, and 
Penfylvania, and a tradt of land near 100 
miles wide, and extending weft ward to the 
South fea, 1400 miles from Narraganfet 



bay. This Charter, which was obtained 
in 1662, well pleafed the people of Hert- 
ford, becaufe it coincided with their for- 
mer vote, viz. c < that their dominion ex- 
tended from fea to fea." Newhaven do- 
minion too late difcovered the intrigues 
of her artful neighbours ; and, after two 
years oppofition, fubmitted to the charter 
purely out of fear left fome of her minif- 
ters and magiftrates fhould fuffer ignomi- 
nious deaths for aiding in the murder of 

their King. 

To the great joy of the People of 
Bofton and Saybrook, Mr. Winthrop was 
appointed, by the Charter, Governor of 
all Connecticut. Their joy, however, 
fprung from different motives : Saybrook 
hoped for effectual protection from the 
infults of Hertford and the perfecutions 
of Newhaven; and Bofton expedted to 
govern the Governor. 

Mr. Winthrop fettled at New-London, 

in the kingdom of Saffacus, or colony 


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of Saybrook, where he purchafed lands oif 
the claimants under Lords Say and 
Brook. Wifdom and moderation guided 
Mr. Winthrop. He was annually elected 
Governor till his death, which happened 
in 1676. 

Whether it were owing to the difco- 
very of any defect in the title of the 
People of Connecticut to the foil, or of 
any undue arts practifed in obtaining their 
charter, or whether it mull be confidered 
as an inftance of Charles's fickle or arbi- 
trary difpofition, that Monarch, in the 
fhort fpace of two years after granting 
that charter, comprized half Connec- 
ticut in another grant to his brother the 
Duke of York of the territory between 
the rivers Connecticut and Delaware, 
called by the Dutch New Netherlands. 
This ftep excited much difcontent in 
Connecticut, efpecially when an actual 
defalcation of its territory was difcovered 

to be in agitation, after Colonel Nichols 



had fuccceded in an enterprize he was 
fent upon againft the Dutch at New- 
York. Commiflioners were fent thither 
from Connedticut, the latter end of 1664, 
to defend the interefts of the Colony $ but, 
notwithftanding all the oppolition they 
could make, they were conftrained to 
yield up the whole of Long-Ifland, and 
a ftrip of land on the eaft fide of Hudfon's 
river. This difmemberment is not eafily 
to be juftified j but, probably, finding it 
neceflary to the performance of a promife 
he had made the Dutch of the enjoyment 
of their poffeflions, Nichols might think 
himfelf at liberty of infifting upon it, fur- 
niflied as he was with almoft regal pow- 
ers as the Duke of York's deputy. In 
that capacity, he aflumed the government 
of the conquered territory, but does not 
appear to have intermeddled further with 
that of Connedticut. 

With Colonel Nichols were aflbciated 
three other gentlemen, in a commiflion, 


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empowering them to enquire into the 
ftate of the New-England provinces, to 
hear and redrefs complaints, fettle dif- 
ferences, and check abufes of power: 
but the ill humour and obftinacy of 
thofe of Connecticut and Maflachufets- 
Bay, in a great mcafure fruftrated their 

By authority of the Charter, the free- 
men chufe annually, in May, a Governor, 
a Deputy -Governor, a Secretary, a Trea- 
furer, and 12 Affiftants, and, twice a year, 
two Reprefentatives from each town. 
Thefe, being met, conftitute the General 
Aflembly, which has power to make laws, 
provided they are not repugnant to the 
laws of England, and enforce them with- 
out the confent of the King. 

The General Aflembly meets in May 
and O&obcr without fummoning. By 
it the colony has been divided into fix 
counties, viz. Hertford, Newhaven, New- 
London, Fairfield, Windham, and Litch- 
field ; 


field ; and thcfe fubdividcd into 73 town- 
fhips, and 300 parifhes 

Each town lias two or more juftices 
of peace, who hear and determine, with- 
out a jury, all caufes under 2/. 

Each county has five judges, who try 
by a jury all caufes above 2/. ' 

Five judges prefide over the fuperior 
court of the province, who hold two fef- 
fions in each county every year. To this 
court are brought appeals from the coun- 
ty courts when the verdid exceeds 10/. 
appeals from the courts of probate, 
writs of error, petitions for divorce, &c. 

The General Aflembly is a court of 
chancery, where the error or rigour of the 
judgments of the fuperior court are cor- 

The General Aflembly, and not the 
Governor, has the power of life and death. 

The courts of probate are managed by 
a juftice of peace appointed by the Gene- 
ral Aflembly. 


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feach county has its Sheriff, and each 
town its conflaWes. 

By charter the Governor is Captain- 
general of the militia. Fourteen Colonels, 
14 Lieutenant-Colonels, and 14 Majors, 
are appointed by the General A {Terri- 
bly. The Captains and Subalterns are 
eledted by the People, and commiflioned 
by the Governor. 

The ecclefiaftical courts in Conne&icut 
are, 1. The Minifter and his Communi- 
cants : 2. The Affociation, which is com- 
pofed of every minifter and deacon in 
the county : 3. The Confociation, which 
confifts of four minifters and their dea- 
cons, chofen from each Affociation ; 
and always meets in May, at Hert- 
ford, with the General Affembly. An ap- 
peal from the Confociation will lie before 
the General Affembly ; but the clergy 
have always been again-ft it, though with 
lefs fuccefs than they wiflied. — The Gene- 
ral Aflcmbly declared <4 Sober Diffcnters" 

G to 

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to be the cftablifhed religion of the pro- 

The laws of the colony enaded by the 
authority of the Charter, are decent in 
comparifon with the Blue Laws. They 
make one thin volume in folio. Yet ex- 
ceptions may juftly be made to many of 
them— equal liberty is not given to all 
parties — titles are unfairly laid—- the poor 
are oppreffed. — One law is intolerable, 
viz. When a trefpafs is committed in the 
night, the injured perfon may recover 
damages of any-one he fhall think proper 
toaccufe, unlefs the accufed can prove 
an alibi, or will clear himfelf by an oath ; 
which oath, never thelefs, it is at the option 
of the juftice either to adminifter or re- 
fufe. Queen Ann repealed the cruel 
laws refpe&ing Quakers, Ranters, and 
Adamites'j but the General Aflembly, 
notwithftanding, continued the fame in 
their law-book, maintaining that a law 
made ix* Connecticut could not be re- 

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pealed by any authority but their own. 
it is a ruled cafe with them, that no law 
or ftatute of England be in force in Con- 
ne&icut, till formally pafled by the Gene- 
ral Aflembly, and recorded by the Secre- 
tary. Above 30 years ago, a negro caf- 
tratcd his mafter's fon, and was brought 
to trial for it before the Superior Court at 
Hertford. The Court could find no law to 
punifti the negro. The lawyers quoted 
the Englifh ftatute againft maiming; 
the Court were of opinion that ftatute did 
not reach this colony, becaufe it had not 
been pafled in the General Aflembly 5 and 
therefore were about to remand the negro 
to prifon till the General Aflembly (hould 
meet. Bufc an ex-pojl-fafto law was ob- 
jedted to as an infringement upon civil 
liberty. At length, however, the Court 
were releafed from their difficulty, by 
having recourfe to the vote of the 
firft fcttlers at Nevvhaven, viz. That the 
Bible fliould be their law, till they could 

G 2 make 


make others more fuitable to their cir* 
cumftances. The court were of opinion 
that vote was in full force, as it had not 
been revoked; and thereupon tried the 
negro upon the Jewifh law, viz. Eye for 
Eye, and Tooth for Tooth. He fuffered 

The idea foftered by the colony of 
independence on Great Britain, was not, 
as might be imagined* dcftroyed by the 
royal charter, but, on the contrary, was 
renewed and invigorated by it. Indeed, 
the charter is as much in favour of Con- 
necticut, and unfavourable to England, as 
if it had been drawn up in Bofton or 
Newhaven. Had it been granted jointly 
by the King, Lords, and Cogimons, and 
not by the King folm> no one could dif- 
pute the independence of Connecticut on 
England, any more than they could that 
of Holland on Spaih. The people at 
Jarge did not difcriminate between an ail 
the Kwgfo/vs, and an adt of the King, 


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Lords, and Commons, conjointly artd t 
to prevent any one from (hewing the dif- 
ference, the General Affembly made a 
law, that u whoever (hould attempt to 
deftroy the conftitution of this Colony 
as by charter eftablifhed, fhould fuffeF 
death.*' The power of a Britifh King 
was held up by them much higher than 
the conftitution allowed. The King 
had authority, they faid, tp form palati-? 
nate ftates without confent of Parliament, 
Accuftomed to dqdtrines of this tendency, 
the multitude concluded the General Afi 
fembly of Connecticut tQ b$ equal to the 
Britifh Parliament, 

Notions of this kind did not prevail 
in Connecticut alone j Maffachufets-Bay 
ftill more abounded with them, and 
Rhode Jfland was not uninfe&ed. What 
was the confequence ? Complaints againft 
thofe governments poured into the Bri- 
tish court. A reformation, therefore, be- 
Sarue indifpen fable in NeW-EngJand, an4 

G 3 WW 


was begun by a disfranchifement of the 
Maflachufets province. The death of 
Charles II. put a temporary flop to pro* 
ceedings againft the other colonies ; but 
James II, foon found it expedient to re- 
new them. In, July, 1685, the following 
inftances of mal-adminiftration were for-* 
mally exhibited againft the Governor and 
Company of Connecticut, viz. 4C They 
cc have made laws contrary to the laws 
(C of England :— they impofe fines upon 
" the inhabitants, and convert them to 
" their own ufo: — they enfore an oath of 
u fidelity upon the inhabitants without 
" adminiftering the oath of fupremacy and 
" allegiance, as in their charteris diredled ; 
" they deny to the inhabitants the exer- 
a cife of the religion of the church of 
** England, arbitrarily fining thofe who 
<c refufe to come to their congregational 
,f Aflemblies: — his Majefty's fubjedts in- 
<f habiting there, cannot obtain juftice in 
" the courts of that colony : — they dif- 

" courage 

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Connecticut. Sj 

** courage and exclude the government 
* c all gentlemen of known loyalty, and 
*' keep it in the liands of the independent 
u party in the colony.' ' (New-Eng. Ent f 
w/.ii. p. 241.) In confequence of this 
impeachment, James II. ordered a §>uq 
Warranto to be iffued againft the Char- 
ter of Conne&icut. The People per* 
ceived the King was in earned ; and 
their alarm manifefted itfelf in humble 
foHicitations for favour ; but, it being 
thought advifeaWe, on feveral accounts, 
particularly the extenfive progrefs the 
French were making in Canada, to ap* 
point one general Governor over New- 
England, the fubmiffive applications of 
the Connecticut colonifts could no fur- 
ther be regarded than in allowing then* 
their choice, whether to be annexed to 
New- York, or the Maffachufets, They 
preferred the latter ; and, accordingly, Sir 
Edmund Andros having been appointed 
Captain-general over all New-England, 

G4 the 


the charter of Connecticut was furrender- 
<ed to him. It is very remarkable, that 
Mr. Neal, Hutchinfon, and other hifto- 
.rians of New- England, have artfully paff- 
-ed over in filence this tranfa&ion of the 
furrender of Conne&icut Charter to Sir 
-Edmund Andros, the General Governor 
over New -r England. They have re- 
•prefented the magistrates of Connedticut 
as not having refigned their charter, but 
by an erroneous conftru&ion put on their 
humble fupplication to James II. by 
tht Court of London ; whereas the 
is, they refigned it, in propria forma, into 
the hands of Sir Edmund Andros, at 
tHertford, in Odtober, 1687, and were an- 
nexed*o the Maffacjiufets-Bay colony, in 
preference to New-York, according to 
royal promife and their own petition, 
But the very night of the furrender of it, 
^Samuel Wadfworth, of Hertford, with 
*he affiftance of a mob, violently broke 
into jhe apartments of Sir Edmund, xtr 

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gained, carried off, and hid the charter in 
the hollow of an elm; and, in 1689, news 
arriving of an infurredtion and overthrow 
of Andros at Bofton, Robert Treat, who 
had been eledted in 1 687, was declared 
by the mob ftill to be Governor of Con~ 
nedticut. He daringly fummoned hfc old 
Afiembly, who, being convened, voted 
the charter to be valid in law, and that 
it could not be vacated by any power, 
without the confent of the General-Af- 
fcmbly. They th<en voted, that Samuel 
Wadfworth fliould bring forth the char- 
ter j which he did in a folemn proceffion, 
attended by the Higl>(heriff,and delivered 
k to the Governor. The General AC 
fembly voted their thanks to WadA- 
worth, and twenty (hillings as a reward 
for Jlealing and hiding their charter in the 
elm. Thus Connefticut darted from 
a dependent county into an independent 
province, in defiance of the authority 
nthat had lately been paid /uch humble 




fubmiflion. None fhould be furprized 
to find the People (hewing more defe* 
reiicc to Abimeleck King of Mohegin, 
than to George King of England ; fince 
a vote of men, whofe legiflative and even 
corporate capacity had been annihilated, 
has prevailed, for more than eighty years, 
over a juft exertion of royal prerogative. 
Neverthelefs, this unconftitutional Af- 
fembly, whofe authority under an af- 
fumed charter has been tacitly acknowl- 
edged by the Britifh Parliament, have not 
at all times been unchecked by the Corpo- 
ration of Yale College. That College, 
by a charter received from this felf- 
eretted Government, was enabled to give 
Bachelors and Mailers degrees ; but the 
Corporation have prefumed to give Doc* 
tors degrees. When the General Affem* 
bly accufed them of ufurping a privilege 
hot conferred by their charter, they re* 
torted, that " to ufurp upon a charter, 
u was not (ff bad as to ufurp a vacated 

" charter/' 

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" charter." The General Affembly were 
obliged to be content with this anfwer, as 
it contained much truth, and came fron* 
the clergy, whofe ambition and power 
are not to be trifled with. 


Whatever might be the reafon of the 
Englifh Government's winking at the 
contempt (hewn to their authority by the 
people of Conne&icut, it certainly added 
to their ingratitude and bias to ufur* 
pation, Having been in poflcffion of that 
country one-hundred and forty years, 
the General Affembly, though unfup- 
ported either by law or juftice, refolved 
to take up and fettle their lands weft not 
only of Hudfon but Sufquehanna river, 
and extending to the South- Sea. In 
purfuance of this refolution, they with 
modefty paffed over New-York, and the 
Jerfeys, becaufe they are poffefled by Myn*» 
heers and fighting chriftians, and feized on 
Penfylvania, claimed by Quakers, who 
fight nor for either wife or daughter. 


They filled up their fathers iniquities, by 
murdering the Quakers and Indians, and 
taking poffefilon of their lands $ and na 
doubt, in another century, they will pro- 
duce deeds of fale from Sunkfquaw, 
Uncas, or fome other fuppofitittous Sa- 
chem. This is a ftriking inftance of the 
ufe I have faid the Colony fometimes 
make of their charter, to countenance 
and fupport their adventurous fpirit of 
enterprize. They plead that tfieir char* 
ter bounds them on the weft by the 
South- Sea $ but they feejn to have for- 
gotten that their charter was furreptitioufly 
Obtained; and that the claufe on which they 
dwell is rendered nugatory, by the petiti- 
oners having defcribed their lands as lying 
fipon Connefticut river, and obtained 
partly by purchafe and partly by conqueft, 
Now, it being a fad: beyond all contro- 
Verfy, that they then had not conquered, 
fior even pretended to have purchafed, any 
lands weft of Hudfon's -River, it is evit 


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dent that their wefternmoft boundary ne- 
ver did or ought to extend further than to 
that river. Not that Mr. Pen has any 
juft title to thofe lands on Sufquehanna 
xiver which are the bone of contention, 
and which lie north of his patent : they 
belong to the affigns of the Plymouth 
Company, or to the Crown of England. 

Republicanifm, fchifms, and perfec- 
tions, have ever prevailed in this Colony. 
~— The religion of u Sober DiJJenters" 
having been eftablifhed by the General 
Affembly, each fe& claimed the eftablifh- 
roent in its favour. The true Indepen- 
dents denied that the Affembly had any 
further power over Chrift's Church than 
to protedt it. Few Magiftrates of any 
religion are willing to yield their autho- 
*ity to Ecclefiaftics j and few diiciples of 
Luther or Calvin are willing to obey either 
civil or fpiritual matters. In a Colony 
•where the people are thus difpofed, do- 
minion will be religion, and fadtion con- 


faience. Hence arofe contentions between 
the Aflembly and Independents j and both 
parties having been brought up under 
Cromwell, their battles were well fought. 
The independent Minifters publilhed* 
from their pulpits, that the Aflembly 
played off one fc& again ft another ; and 
that Civilians were equal enemies to all 
parties, and a£ed more for their own 
kuereft than the glory of God, Thofe 
fpirkual warriors, by their Afibciations, 
fading and prayers, voted themfelvrs the 
tc Sober Bi£enters" and got the better of 
the General Aflembly. Indeed, none dif* 
puted their vote with impunity. When* 
ever a Governor manifefted an inclination 
to govern Chrift's Minifters, Chrift's 
Minifters were fure to inftrudt the free- 
men not to re-eledl hiiri. The Magif- 
tfates declared they had rather be under 
Lords- Bifhops than Lords- Aflbciations. 
A Governor was appointed, who deter- 
mined to reduce Chrift's Minifters under 


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the Civil Power $ and, accordingly, the 
Afiembly fent their Sheriff to bring before 

them certain leading men among the Mi- 
nifters, of whom they banifhed fpme, 
filenced others, and fined many, for 
preaching fedition. The Minifters told the 
Affcmbly, that cutft cows had fliort hornsj 
and that u they were Priefls for ever 
« after the order of Melcbifedec" How- 
ever, like good chriftians, they fubmitted 
to the ientence of the Aflemblyj went 
home, fafted, and prayed, until the Lord 
pointed out a perfedt cure for all their 
fufferings* On the day of eleftion, 
they told the freemen that the Lord's caufe 
tequired a man of Grace to ftand at the 
head of the Colony, and with fure confi- 
dence recommended the Moderator of the 
Affociation to be their Governor j and 
the Moderator was chofen. This event 
greatly inflamed the lay-magiftrates, who 
were further mortified to fee Minifters 
among the .Reprefcntatives j whereupon 


9 6 rttSTORY OP 

they cried out, " This is a prefbyterlart 
popedom." Now Magiftrates joined with 
Other Churches which they had long, 
perfecuted ; and the Connecticut Vine 

Was rent more and more every day* The 
Minifters kept the power, but not always 
the office, of the Governor, whilft the 
Weaker party paid the coft. One party 
Was called Old Light, the other New 
Light t both aimed at power under pre* 
fence of religion j which-ever got the 
pwer*, the other was perfecuted. By this 
happy quarrel, the various fe&arians were 
freed from their perfections $ becaufe 
each contending party courted their votes 
And interefti to help to pull down its 
adveffary* This has been the reli- 
gious-political free fyftem and praftice 
of Connecticut fince 1662. 

In fpeaking of the religious phrenzies 
and perfections in Connecticut under the 
(kndtion of the charter, I muft notice the 
Words of an eminent Quaker, who, as a 


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blafphemer, had been whipped, branded, 
burnt in the tongue, fet on the gallows, 
banifhed, and, upon return, fentenced 
to be hanged. '« Doft thee not think," 
faid he to his Judges, if that the Jews, 
" who crucified the Saviour of the World, 
M had a Charter f " 

' Many have been the difputes between 
Connedticut and the neighbouring Colo- 
nies concerning their feveral boundaries, 
and much blood has been fpilt on thofe 
occafions. On the north and eaft, 
where lie the Maflachufets and Rhode- 
Ifland, Connedticut has, in fome degree, 
been the gainer ; but has loft confiderably 
on the weft and fouth, to the engen- 
dering violent animofity againft the loyal 
New-Yorkers, to whom it will probably 
prove fatal in the end. The detail is 
briefly as follows : 

The Dutch fettlers on New- York 
Ifland, Hudfon's river, and the weft end 
of Long Ifland, being fubdued by Colonel 

H Nichols 


Nichols in September, 1664, the royal 
Commiflioners, after hearing the Depu- 
ties from Connecticut in fupport of the 
charter granted to that province again ft 
the Duke of York's patent, ordered, in 
December following, that Long-Ifland 
fhould be annexed to the government of 
New- York, and that the Weft boundary 
of Connedticut fhould be a line drawn 
from the mouth of Mamaroneck river 
north - north - weft to the line of the 
Maflachufets. This fettlement, although 
it infringed their charter, was peaceably 
acquiefced in by the people of Connecticut; 
and not complained of by thofe of New* 
York till 1683, when they fet up a claim 
founded upon a Dutch grant, /aid to be 
made in 162 1, of all the lands from Cape 
Cod to Cape Henlopen. In furtherance 
of their pretenGons, they had recourfe to 
invafion and flander. Of the latter Mr. 
Smith has given a fpecimen in his Hiftory 
of New- York, where he fays that the 


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agreement in 1664 t€ was founded in igno- 
" ranee and fraud becaufe, forfooth, 
u a north-north- weft line from Mamaro- 
u neck would foon interfed Hudfon's 
€i river !" Could any one of common-fenfe 
fuppofe the Dutch on the banks of 
Hudfon's river, who no doubt were con- 
fulted upon the occafion, lefs acquaint- 
ed with the courfe of it, than perfons re- 
fiding on the banks of the Connedlicut? 
Extraordinarily abfurd as fuch an infinu- 
ation might be, the people of Connefticut 
were aware of its probable weight with 
the Duke of York, whofe patent grafped 
half their country ; and therefore, know- 
ing by whom a conteft muft be decided, 
they confented to give up twenty miles 
of their land eaft of Hudfon's river, ho- 
ping that would content a company of 
time-ferving Jacobites and artful Dutch- 
men. But neither were they nor their 
Patron fatisfied ; and the agreement was 
fufpeodftd till 1700, when it was con^ 

H 2 firmed 


firmed by William III. About twenty 
years afterwards, however, the New- 
Yorkers thought the times favourable to 
further encroachments $ and at length, in 
173 1, they gained 60,000 acres more, 
called the Oblong, from Connecticut, pure- 
ly becaufe they had Dutch confciences, 
and for once reported in England what 
was true, that the New-England colonifts 
hated Kings, whether natives or foreigners. 
Mr. Smith, indeed, p. 238, fays, referring 
to Douglas's * Plan of the Britifli Dominions 

• Dr. Douglas was a natural ift, and a phyfician 
of confiderable eminence in Bofton, where he 
never attended any religious worfhip, having 
been educated in Scotland with fuch rancorous 
hatred againft epifcopacy, that, with his age, it 
ripened into open fcepticifm and deifm. However, 
his many feverities againft the Epifcopalians, New 
Lights, and Quakers, procured him a good name 
among the Old Lights, and the mongrel chriftians 
of New- York, whofe policy and felf-intereft have 
always domineered over confeience and morality. 
For thefe reafons, his brother Smith, in his Hif- 
tory of New- York, frequently quotes him, to 
prove his futile aflertions againft New-England, 
New-Jerfey, and Pcnfylvania. 


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of New-England in fupport of his aflet- 
tion, that <f Connecticut ceeded thefe 
" 6o,ooa acres to New York, as an equi- 
" valentiox lands near the Sound furren- 
" dered to Connecticut by New- York/' 
Mr. Smith, and all the New- York cabal, 
know, that there never were any lands 
in the poffeffion of the New-Yorkers fur- 
rendered to Connecticut : on the con- 
trary, Connecticut was forced, by the 
partiality of fovereigns, to give up, not 
only Long Ifland and the above-men- 
tioned twenty miles eaftof Hudfon's river, 
but alfo the Oblong, without any equiva- 
valent. How New- York could furrender 
lands and tenements which they never 
had any right to or poffeffion of, is only 
to be explained thus : whereas the people 
of New- York did not extend their eaftern 
boundary to Connecticut river, they there- 
fore (urrendered to Connecticut what they 
never had which is like a highwayman's 
faying to a Gentleman, Give me ten gui- 



neas, and I will furrender to you your 
watch in your pocket. 

Thus by degrees has Connefticut loft 
a trad: of land fixty miles in length and 
above twenty in breadth, together with 
the whole of Long Ifland ; and this/in 
the firft place by a ftretch of royal prero^ 
gative, and afterwards by the chicanery of 
theircompetitors, who have broken through 
all agreements as often as a temporifing 
condudt feemed to promife them fuccefs. 
Whenever, therefore, a favourable oppor-r 
tunity prefents itfelf, it is probable, that 
Meflrs. Smith and Livingfton, and other 
pateroons in New-York, will find the 
laft determination alfo to have been 
" founded in ignorance and fraud," and will 
be pufliing their claim to all the lands 
\yeft of Connefticut river 5 but the op r 
portunity muft be favourable indeed, 
that allows them to encroach one foot 
farther with impunity. 

Another ftroke the people of Con- 


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nedticut received about 1753 has forely 
galled them ever fince, and contributed 
not a little to their thirft of revenge. 
The Governor of New- York was then 
appointed « c Captain-General and Com- 
u mander in Chief of the militia, and 
" all the forces by fep. and land, within 
" the Colony of Connecticut, and of all 
M the forts and places of ftrength within 
* the fame." This violation of the 
Charter of Connecticut by George II. 
was very extraordinary, as the reins of 
Government were then in the hands of 
proteftant diflenters, whofe fuppofed vene- 
ration for the Houfe of Hanover ope- 
rated fo powerfully, that the American 
proteftant diflenting minifters were al- 
lowed to be inftalled teachers, and to 
hold fynods, without taking the oath of 
allegiance to the Englifli King, at the 
fame time that papifts, and even members 
of the Church of England, were not 
excufed that obligation. The aggravat- 

H 4 ing 


ing appointment above mentioned added 
no celebrity to the name of George II. 
in New-England y nor, however ex- 
cufable it may appear in the eyes of 
thofe who with me queftion the colo- 
nial pretenfions of the people of Con- . 
nedticut, was it, upon the ground they 
have been allowed to Hand by the Eng- 
lifti government, juftifuble in point of 
right, nor yet in point of policy, were 
the true character of the New-Yorkers 
fully known. This argum'ent may be 
ufed on more occafions than the prefent. 

But Connecticut hath not been the 
only fufferer from the reftlefs ambition 
of New- York. Twenty miles depth of 
land belonging to the Maflachufets and 
Newhampfhire provinces, which for T 
merly claimed to Hudfon's river, were 
cut off by the line that deprived Con- 
necticut of the fame proportion of it$ 
weftern territory. With this acquifition, 
furely, the New Yorkers might have 


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been content; but very lately their wifdom^ 
if not their " fraud," has prevailed over 
the u ighorance " of Newhampftiire ; 
which has fuftained another amputation 
of its territory, eighty miles in width 
and two hundred miles in length ; viz. 
all the land between the above mentioned 
twenty-mile line and Connecticut river. 
The particulars of this tranfaction are in- 
terefting. Benning Wentworth, Efq. Go- 
vernor of Newhampftiire, by order of his 
prefent Majefty, divided, in 1762, the 
vaft tradt of land juft mentioned into 
about 360 townft)ips,fix miles fquare each. 
Thefe townftiips he granted to proprietors 
belonging to the four provinces of New 
England, one townfhip to fixty propri- 
etors ; and took his fees for the fame, 
according to royal appointment. Every 
townfhip was, in twelve years time, to 
have fixty families refiding in it. In 
1769 there were fettled on this piece of 
land 30,000 fouls, at a very great ex- 
pence 1 


pence; and many townfhips contained 
loo families. The New-Yorkers found 
means to deceive the King, and obtained 
a decree that the Eaft boundary of New 
York, after paffing Connecticut and Maf- 
fachufets-Bay, ftiould be Connecticut ri- 
ver *. This decree annexed to the ju* 
rifdi&ion of New- York the faid 360 
townfliips ; but was quietly fubmitted to 
by the proprietors, fince it was his Ma- 
jefty's will to put them under the jurif- 
didtion of New- York, tho' they found 
themfelves 150 miles farther from their 
new capital New- York, than they were 
from Portfmouth, their old one. Had 
the New-Yorkers refted fatisfied with 

the jurifdiftion, which alone the King 

* Perhaps their fuccefs was facilitated by the 
confideration, that the quit-rent payable to the 
Crown in New-York is 2s. 6d. per 100 acres, but 
only 9d. in Newhampfhire. The fame may be 
faid, with flill more reafon, in regard to the lands 
acquired by New- York from Maflachufets-Bay 

and Connecticut, where the quit-rent is-> — no- 


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had given them, they might have enjoyed 
their acquifition in peace $ and New-Eng- 
land would have thought they had pof- 
fefled fomc juftice, though deftitute of 
religious zeal. But the Governor and 
General AlTembly of New York, finding 
their intereft in Old-England Wronger 
than the intereft of the New-Englanders, 
determined at once, that, as the King had 
given {hem jurifdidtion over thofe 360 
townfhips, he had alfo given them the 
lands in fee fimple. Sir Henry More, the 
Governor, therefore, in 1767, began the 
laudable work of regranting thofe townfhips 
to fuch people as lived in New-York, and 
were willing to pay him 600U York cur- 
rency for his valuable name to each pa- 
tent. It is remarkable that Sir Harry 
made every lawyer in the whole province 
a patentee ; but totally forgot the four 
public lots, viz, that for the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gofpel, thofe for 

the church, the firft clergyman, and 



fchool in each townfhip, Which had 
been referved in Governor Wentworth's 
grants. Death flopped his career ; but 
Golden, the Lieutenant-Governor, filled 
up the meafure of his iniquity, by granting 
all the reft on the fame conditions. Sir 
Henry More had taken care to grant to his 
dear felf one townfhip, fettled with above 
80 families, before he died. Coldcn did 
the fame for himfelf. The virtuous Wil- 
liam Smith, Efq; of New-York, had a 
townfhip alfo j and Sir Henry More left 
him his executor to drive off the New- 
England fettlers. This, however, he at- 
tempted in vain. The polite New-York- 
ers* having the jurifdidtion, betook them- 
felves to law, to get poffeffion of the lands 
in queftion, which they called their own;* 
and fent the pofle of Albany to ejedt the 
pofleflbrsj but this mighty power was 
anfwered by Ethan Allen, and the old 
proprietors under Governor Wentworth, 
who was a King's Governor as well as 


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Sir Henry More : — the Mynheers of Al- 
bany were glad to have liberty to return 
home alive. — See here the origin of 
Ethan Allen 1 — of the Verdmonts, and the 
Robbers of the Green Mountains ; a com- 
pliment paid by the New-Yorkers to the 
fettlers under Governor Went worth j— 
who, on that amiable gentleman's death, 
had no friend of note left in England, 
and were therefore under the necefluy of 
defending themfelves, or becoming tenants 
to a fet of people who neither feared God 
nor honoured the King, but when they 
got fomethingby it.— The New-Yorkers 
had the grace, after this, to outlaw Ethan 
Allen, which rendered him of confe- 
quence in New England ; and it would 
not furprize me to hear that New- York, 
Albany, and all that the Dutchmen pof- 
fefs in houfes eaft of Hudfon's River, 
were confumed by fire, and the inhabit 
tants fent to Heaven, in the ftyle of Dr* 
Mather, by the way of Amfterdam. I 




mull do the New-Englanders the juftice 
4o fay, that, though they efteem not high- 
ly Kings or Lords, yet they never com- 
plained againft his Majefty for what was 
done refpedting Verdmont ; on the con- 
trary, they ever faid the King would re- 
verfe the obnoxious decree, whenever he 
fhould be acquainted with the truth of 
the cafe, which the New-Yorkers artfully 
concealed from his knowledge. — There 
are in the four New- England provinces 
near 800,000 fouls, and very few uncon- 
nected with the fettlements on Verd- 
mont; the property of which was duly 
vetted in them by Wentworth, the King's 
Governor, whofe predeceflbrs and himfelf 
had jurifdi&ion over it alfo for 106 years. 
They fay, what is very legal and juft, that 
his Majefty had a right to annex Verd- 
mont to the government of New- York, 
but could not give the fee of the land, be- 
caufe he had before given it to the New- 
Englanders. It appears very unlikely that 


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thofe hardy fons of Oliver will ever give 
up Verdmont to the New-Yorkers by the 
order of Sir Henry More, or any other 
Governor, till compelled by the point of 
the fword. The Mynheers have more to 
fear than the New-Englanders, who will 
never yield to Dutch virtue. Van Tromp 
was brave; Oliver was brave and fuc- 
cefsful too. 

Mather, Neal, and Hutchinfon, repre- 
fent religion to have been the caufe of the 
firft fettlement of New-England; and 
the love of gold as the ftimulus of the 
Spaniards in fettling their colonies in the 
fouthern parts of America ; but, if we 
fliould credit the Spanifti hiftorians, we 
muft believe that their countrymen were 
as much influenced by religion in their 
colonial purfuits as were our own. How- 
ever, in general, it may be faid, that the 
conduct of both parties towards the 
aborigines difcovered no principles but 
what 4 were difgraceful to human nature. 



Murder, plunder, and outrage, were thb 
means made ufe of to convert the be- 
nighted favages of the wildernefs to the 
fyftem of Him u who went about doing 
" good." If we may depend on Abbe 
Nicolle, the Spaniards killed of the Aytis, 
or the favage nations, in the Ifland of 
Hifpaniola, 3,000,000 in feventeen years j 
600,000 in Porto Rico, and twenty times 
thefe numbers on the continent of South- 
America, in order to propagate the Gof- 
pel in a favage and howling wildernefs ! 
The Englifli colonifts have been as in- 
duftrious in fpreading the Gofpel in the 
howling wildernefs of North America. 
Upwards of 180,000 Indians, at leaft, 
have been flaughtered in Maffachufets- 
Bay and Conne&icut *, to make way for 



* In i68o,the number of Indians, or aborigines, 
in the whole Province of Connecticut, was 4000. 
This was allowed by the General Aflembly. How 
much greater their number was in 1637, may be 
eftimated from the accounts given by Dr. Mather, 


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the proteftant religion ; and, upon a mode- 
rate computation for the reft of the Colo- 
nies on the Continent and Weft-India 
Iflands, I think one may venture to aflert, 
that near 2,000,000 favages have been 
dilmiffed from an unpleafant world to 

Mr. Neal, Mr. Penhallow, and Mr. Hutchinfon, of 
the deaths of Englifli men in the Indian wars for 
the fpace of forty-three years. It has been com- 
puted, that, from 1637 to 1680, upon an ave- 
rage, loo Englifhmen were killed yearly in thofe 
wars, and that there were killed, with the fword, 
gun, and fmall-pox, 20 Indians for one Englifli- 
man. If this calculation is juft, it appears that 
the Englifli killed of the Indians, during the 
above-mentioned period, 86000 ; to which number 
the 4000 Indians remaining in 1680 being added, 
it is clear that there were 90,000 Indians in Con- 
necticut when Hooker began his holy war upon 
them : not to form conjectures upon thofe who 
probably afterwards abandoned the country. This 
evinces the weaknefs of the Indian mode of fighting 
with bows and arrows again ft guns, and the impro- 
priety of calling Connecticut an bowling wilder nefs 
in 1636, when Hooker arrived at Hertford. The 
Englifli in 136 years have not much more than 
doubled the number of Indians they killed in 43 
years. In 1770 the number of Indians in Con- 
ne&icut amounted not to 400 fouls. 

I the 


the world of fpirits, for the honour of the 
proteftant religion and Englifh liberty, 
Neverthelefs, having travelled over moft 
parts of Britifh America, I am able to 
declare, with great fincerity,. that this 
mode of converting the native Indians is 
godlike in comparifon with that adopted 
for the Africans. Thefe mifcrable people 
are firft kidnapped, then put under faws, 
barrows and axes of iron % andjorced tbro* 
the brick-kiln to Molock. Near half a. 
million of them are doomed to hug their 
mifery in ignorance, nakednefs, and hun- 
ger, among their inafters upper fervants 
in Georgia, the Carolina's, Virginia, and 
Maryland. The number of thefe- wretch- 
es upon the continent and iflands is 
fcarce credible; above 100,000 in Ja- 
maica alone ; all toiling for the tyrant's 
pleafure 5 none feeking other happinefs 
than to be fkreened from the torture, 
rendered neceflary by that curious Ame- 
rican maxim, that men muft be will- 

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ing to die before they are jit for the 
Kingdom of Heaven. However, what 
Muflulman, African, or American, would 
not prefer the ftate of a chriftian majler^ 
who dreads death above all things, to the 
ftate of thofe chriftian converts ? Chrifti- 
anity has been curfed through the infin* 
cerity of its profeflbrs \ even favages de- 
fpife its precepts,becaufe they have no in- 
fluence on chriftians themfelves. What- 
ever religious pretences the Spaniards, 
French, or Englifh, may plead for depo- 
pulating and repeopling America, it is 
pretty clear, that the defire of gold and do- 
minion was no impotent in (ligation with 
them to feek the weftern continent. The 
Britifh leaders in the fchemeof emigration 
had felt the humiliating effedts of the feudal 
fyftem ; particularly the partial diftribution 
of fortunes and honours among children of 
the fame venter in the mother country. . 
They had feen that this inequality pro- 
duced infolence and oppreflion, which 

awakened the fentiments of independence 

I 2 and 


and liberty, the inftin&s of every man. 
Nature then kindled war againft the op- 
preflbrs, and the oppreffors appealed to 
prefcription. The event was, Infeli- 
city began her reign. Both parties in- 
voked Religion, but proftrated themfelves 
before the infidious fhrineof Supcrftition, 
the life of civil government, and the 
finews of war j that expiates crimes 
by prayers, ufes ceremonies for good 
works, efteems devotion more than vir- 
tue, fupports religion without probity, 
values honefty lefs than honour, gene- 
rates happinefs without morality, and is a 
glorious helmet to the ambitious. They 
inlifted vaffals with her bounty, to 
fight, burn, and deftroy, one another, for 
the fake of religion. Behold the fequel ! 
The vaffals fecured to themfelves more 
than Egyptian mafters and laws, both in 
the elder and younger brothers; yet,after all, 
Superftition told them they enjoyed liberty 
and the rights of human nature. Happy 
deception ! The Spartan Magnotes, 
' tribu- 

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tributary to the Turks, are jealous of their 
liberties ; while the American Canfez, 
near Lake Superior, enjoy liberty com- 
pieat without jealoufy. Among the lat- 
ter, the confcious independence of 
each individual warms his thoughts and 
guides his adtions. He enters the fache- 
mic dome with the fame fimple freedom 
as he enters the wigwam of his brother ; 
neither dazzled at the fplendor, nor awed 
by the power, of the pofleffor. Here 
is liberty in perfedtion ! What Chrijiian 
would wi(h to travel 4000 miles to rob 
an unoffending favage of what he holds 
by the law of nature ? That is not the 
Gold or Dominion that any Chrijiian 
ever fought for. The firft fettlers of 
America had views very different from 
thofe of making it a chrijiian country: 
their grand aim was to get free from the 
infolence of their elder brethren, and to 
aggrandize themfelves in a new world, 
at the expence of the life, liberty, and 

I 3 property, 


property, of the favages. Had the inva- 
ders of New -England fown the feeds of 
chrijlian benevolence, even after they 
had eradicated the favages and favage 
virtues, the world would not have re- 
proached them for cljerifhing that all- 
grafping fpirit in themfelves, which in 
others had driven them from their parent 
country : but the feudal fyftem, which 
they conficered as an abominable vice in 
England, became a fhining virtue on the 
other fide of the Atlantic, and would 
have prevailed there, had the People 
been as blind and tame in worldly, as 
they were in fpiritual concerns. But they 
had too long heard their leaders declaim 
againft the monopoly of lands and titles, 
not to difcover that they themfelves were 
men, and entitled to the rights of that race 
of beings : and they proceeded upon the 
fame maxims, which they found alfo a- 
mong the Indians, viz. that mankind are, 
by nature, upon an equality in point of 



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rank and poffeffionj that it is incom- 
patible with freedom for any particular 
defcriptions of men fyftematically to mo- 
nopolize honours and property, to the ex- 
clufion of the reft; that it was a part 
defpicable and unworthy of one freeman 
to (loop to the will and caprice of ano- 
ther, on account of his wealth and titles, 
accruing not from his own, but from the 
heroifm and virtue of his anceftors, &c. 
&c. The vox populi eftabliflied thefe 
maxims in New-England ; and whoever 
did not, at leaft, outwardly conform to 
them, were not chofen into office ; nay, 
though not obje&ible on that fcore, men 
very feldom met with re-appointments, 
left they fhould claim them by hereditary 
right Thus, the levelling principle pre* 
vailing, equals were refpedted, and fupe- 
riors derided. Europeans, whofe man- 
ners were haughty to inferiors and fawn- 
ing to fuperiors, were neither loved nor 

efteemed. Hence an Englifh traveller 

I 4 through 


through Conne&icut meets with fuperci- 
lious treatment at all taverns, as being 
too much addi&ed to the ufe of the Im- 
perative Mood, when fpeaking to the land- 
lord. The anlwer is, '« Command your 
own fervants, and not me." The travel- 
ler is not obeyed ; which provokes him 
to fome expreflions that are not legal in 
the colony, about the impertinence of 
the landlord, who being commonly a juf- 
tice of the peace, the delinquent is im~ 
mediately ordered into cuftody, fined, or 
put into the ftocks. However, after 
paying cofts, and promifing to behave 
well in future, he pafles on with more 

attention to his <c unruly member*' than 
to his pleafures. Neverthelefs, if a tra- 
veller foftens his tone, and avoids the 
Imperative Mood, he will find every civi- 
lity from thofe very people, whofe natu- 
ral tempers are full of antipathy againft 
all who affedt fuperiority over them. 
This principle is, by long cuftom, blended 


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with the religious dodtrines of the pro- 
vince ; and the people believe thofe to be 
heretics and Arminians who aflent not to 
their fupremacy. Hence they confider 
kingly Governors as the fhort horns of 
antichrift, and every Colony in a ftate of 
perfecution which cannot chufe its own 
Governor and Magiftrates. Their aver- 
fion to New- York is inconceivably great 
on this account, as well as others I have 
mentioned. Their jealoufies and fears of 
coming under its jurifdidtion make them 
heroes in the caufe of liberty, and great 
inquifitors into the characters and condudt 
of all kingly Governors. They have 
feleded Mr. Tryon as the only Eng- 
lifti Governor who has acted with juftice 
and generofity in refpedt to the rights, 
liberties, and feelings, of mankind, while, 
they fay, avarice, plunder, and oppreffion, 
have marked the footfteps of all the reft. 
This charadter Mr. Tryon poffeffed even 
after he had fubdued the Regulators in 



North-Carolina and was appointed Go- 
vernor of New- York. Some perfon6 af- 
fert, indeed, that he fecured the good-will 
of Connedticut, by recommending, in 
England, the Livingfloris, Schuyler's, and 
Smith's, as the beft fubjedls in New- York. 
However, Mr. Tryon was undoubtedly 
entitled to good report : he was humane 
and polite : to him the injured had accefs 
without a fee : he would hear the poor 
man's complaint,though it wanted the aid 
of a poliflied lawyer. Befides,Mr. Tryon 
did not think it beneath him to fpeak to a 
peafant in the ftreet, or to flop his coach 
to give people an opportunity to let him 
pafs. His objedt was not to make his 
fortune, nor did he negledt the intereft of 
the people. He embelli(hed not his 
language with oaths and curfes, nor fpent 
the Sabbath at taverns. 'Tis true, Mr. 
Tryon went not to meeting ; but he was 
forgiven this offence, becaufe he went to 

* church : the people of New - England 


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having fo much candour as to believe a 
man may be a good fort of a man, if he 
goes to church, and is exemplary in his 
words and deeds. I have not the ho- 
nour of being known to Mr. Tryon, 
but, from what I know of bim, I muft 
fay, without meaning to offend any other* 
that he was the beft Governor and the moft 
pleafing gentleman that I ever faw in a 
civil capacity in America ; and that I can- 
not name any Briton fo well calculated to 
govern in Connecticut, with eafe and fafety 
to himfelf, as he is. One reafon for this 
aflertion is, that Mr. Try on has a punc* 
tilious regard for his word $ a quality, 
whicb,tho' treachery is the ftaple commo- 
dity of the four New-England Provinces, 
the people greatly admire in a Governor, 
and which, they fay, they have feldom 
found in royal Governors in America. 
1 11 j .. 1 1 j .11 . But whither am I wandering ? 
I beg pardon for this digreffion, though 
in favour of fo worthy a man. 



Of the fhare Connecticut has taken, in 
common with her fifter colonies, in co- 
operating with the Mother -country againft 
her natural enemies, it is fuperfluous to 
fay any-thing here, that being already 
fufficiently known. I (hall therefore 
proceed to a defcription of the country, 
its towns, produdtions, &c. together with 
the manners, cuftoms, commerce, &c. 
of the inhabitants, interfperfing fuch hif- 
ftorical and biographical anecdotes, as may 
occur to me in the relation, and have a 
tendency to elucidate matter of fadt, or 
characterize the people. 

The dimenfions of Connecticut, ac- 
cording to its prefent allowed extent, are, 
from the Sound, on the fouth, to the 
Maffachufets line,on the north, about fixty 
miles ; and from Biram river and New- 
York line, on the weft, to Narraganfet 
Bay, Rhode- Ifland, and Maffachufets-Bay, 
on the eaft, upon an average, about 100 


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miles. It is computed to contain 
5,000,000 acres. 

Many creeks, inlets, bays, and rivers 
interfedl the coaft. Three of the laft, 
dividing the colony into as many parts, I 
lhall particularly notice. They all run 
from north to fouth. 

The eaftern river is called the Thames 
as far as it is navigable, which is only to 
Norwich, 14 miles from its mouth. 
There dividing, the greateft branch, call- 
ed Quinnibaug, rolls rapidly from its 
fource 100 miles diftant though many 
towns and villages, to their great plea- 
fantnefs and profit. On it are many 
mills and iron-works ; and in it various 
kinds of fi(h ; but no falmon, for want of 
proper places to nourifli their fpawn. 

The middle river is named Connec- 


ticut, after the great Sachem to whom 
that part of the province through which 
it runs belonged. This vaft river is 500 
miles long, and four miles wide at its 

mouth : 


mouth : its channel, or inner banks, irt 
general, half a mile wide. It takes its 
rife from the White Hills, in the north of 
New-England, where alfo fprings the 
river Kennebec. Abote 500 rivulets, 
which iflue from lakes, ponds, and 
drowned lands, fall into it : many of 
them are larger than the Thames at 
London. In March, when the rain arid 
fun melt the fnow and ice, efcch ftream is 
overcharged, and: kindly haftens to this 
great river, to overflow, fertilife, and pre- 
serve its trembling meadows. They lift 
up enormous cakes of ice, burfting from 
their frozen beds with threatening inten- 
tions of plowing up the frighted earth, 
and carry them rapidly down the fells, 
where they are dafhed in pieces and rife 
in mift. Except at thefe falls, of which 
there are five, the flrft fixty miles from itfc 
mouth, the river is navigable throughout. 
In its northern parts are 3 great bendings, 
called cohoffes, about 100 miles afunder. 


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Txno huoifced miles from the Sound is a 
narrow of fiye, yard? only, formed by two 
{helving mountains of folidrock, whofe 
tops intercept the clouds. Thro'this chafm 
are compelled to pafs all the waters which 
in the time of the floods bury the northern 
country. At the upper cohos the river 
then fpreads 24 miles wide, and for five 
or fix weeks (hips of war might fail over 
lands, that afterwards produce the greateft 
crops of hay and grain in all America. 
People who can bear the fight, the groans, 
the tremblings, and furly motion of water, 
trees, and ice, through this, awful paflage, 
view with aftonifhment one of the great- 
eft phenomenons in nature. Here water 
is confolidated, without froft, by prefiure, 
by fwiftnefs, between the pinching, fturdy 
rocks, to fuch a,degree of induration, that 
no iron crow can be forced into it : — here 
iron, lead, and cork, have one common 
weight: — here, fteady as time, and harder 
than marble, ths-ftream paffes irrefiftible, 



if not fwift, as lightning:— the eledtric 
fire rends trees in pieces with no greater 
eafe, than docs this mighty water. The 
paflage is about 400 yards in length, 
and of a zigzag form, with obtufe cor- 
ners. The following reprefentation will 
affift the reader in forming an idea of it. 

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At high water are carried through this 
flraight marts and other timber with incre- 
dible fwiftnefs, and fometimes with fafetyj 
but when the water is too low, the marts, 
timber, and trees, ftrike on one fide or 
the other, and, though of the largcft fize, 
are rent, in one moment, into (hivers, and 
fplintered like a broom, to the amazement 
of fpe&ators. The meadows, for many 
miles below, are covered with immenfe 
quantities of wood thus torn in pieces, 
which compel the hardieft travellers to re- 
flea, how feeble is man, and how great 
that Almighty who formed the light- 
nings, thunders, agd the irrefiftible power 
and ftrength of waters ! 

No living creature was ever known to 
pafs through this narrow, except an In- 
dian woman, who was, in a canoe t 
attempting to crofs the river above it, but 
carelefsly lufFered herfelf to fall within the 
power of the current. Perceiving her dan- 
ger, fhe took a bottle of rum (he had with 

K her, 


her, and drank the whole of it ; then lay 
down in her canoe, to meet her deftiny. 
She marvelloufly went through fafely, 
and was taken out of the canoe fome miles 
below, quite intoxicated, by fome Eng- 
liihmen. Being afked how (he could 
be fo daringly imprudent as to drink fuch 
a quantity of rum with the profpeft of 
inftant death before her, the fquaw, as 
well as her condition would let her, 
replied, " Yes, it was too much rum for 
" once, to be fure ; but I was not willing 
u to lofe a drop of it : fo I drank it, and 
" you fee I have faved all." 

Some perfons affert that falmonhave been 
caught above this narrow, while others 
deny it. Many have obferved faimon 
attempt to pafs in the time of floods, 
which certainly is the beft and likelieft 
time,as, from the height of the water,and 
the (helving of the rocks, the paflageis then 
broader ; but they were always thrown 
back, and generally killed. It is not to be 


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fuppofed that any fifh could pafs with the 
ftream alive Above this narrow there 
is plenty of fifh both in fummer and 
winter, which belong to the lakes or 
ponds that communicate with the river : 
below it are the greateft abundance and 
variety caught or known in North Ame- 
rica. No falmon are found in any river 
to the weftward of this. 


Except the Mifllilppi and St. Lau- 
rence, the Connedticut is the largeft river 
belonging to the Englifli plantations in 
the New World. On each fhore of it are 
two great roads leading from the mouth 
2Co miles up the country, lined on both 
fides with the beft-built houfes in Ame- 
rica, if not in the world. It is com- 
puted, that the country on each bank of 
this river, to a depth of fix miles, and a 
length of 300, is fufricient for the main- 
tenance of an army of 100,000 men. In 
lhort, the neighbouring fpacious and fer- 
tile meadow, arable, and other lands, 

K 2 com- 


combined with this noble river, are 
at once the beauty and main fupport of 
all New-England, 

The weftern river is navigable and 
called Stratford only for ten miles, where 
Derby ftands ; and then takes the name 
of Ofootonoc. It is 50 miles weft from 
Conntdticut river, and half a mile wide. 
It rifes in the Verdmonts, above 200 
miles from the fca, and travels 300 
miles through many pleafant towns and 
villages. The adjacent meadows are 
narrow, and the country in general very 
hilly. With fome expence it might be 
made navigable above 100 miles. It fur- 
niflies fiih of various kinds, and ferves 
many mills and iron-works. 

Two principal bays, named Saflacus or 
New-London, and Quinnipiog or New- 
haven, run five or fix miles into the coun- 
try, and are met by rivers which for- 
merly bore the Sachems names. 

It has already been obferved, that Con- 


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ne&icut was fettled under three diftindt 
independent Governors ; and that each 
Dominion, fince thtir union in 1664, has 
been divided into two counties. 

The Kingdom of Sassacus, Sachem 
ofthePcquods, a warlike nation, forms the 
counties of New-London and Windham, 
which contain about 10,000 houfes, and 
60,000 inhabitants. Saffacus was brave 
by nature. The found of his coming 
would fubdue nations, at the fame 
time that Juftice would unbend his bow, 
and Honour calm the thunder of his 
tongue. Dr. Mather, Mr. Neal, and 
others, have endeavoured to blaft his fame 
by proving him to have been the ag- 
grcflbr in the bloody wars which ended in 
his ruin. They have inftanced the mur- 
der of Captain Stone and others, to 
juftify this war, but carefully conceal- 
ed the affaflination of Quinnipiog, the 
treachery of Mr. Elliot (the Maffachufets- 
Bay Apoflle of the Indians), and the in- 

K 3 famous 


famous villainy of Hooker, who fpread 
death upon the leaves of his Bible, and 
ftruck Connedicote mad with difeafe. 
They alfo conceal another important 
truth, that the Englifh had taken poffef- 
lion of lands belonging to Saflacus, with- 
out purchafe or his confent. Befides, 
Saflacus had too much fagacity to let 
chriflian fpies, under the appellation of 
gofpel mifiionarics, pafs through- hi* coun- 
try. He had feen the confequences of 
admitting fuch minifters of chriftianity 
from Bofton, Hertford, &c. among his 
neighbouring nations, and gtneroufly 
warned them to keep their gofpel of peace 
from his dominions. The invaders of 
this howling wildernefs, finding their 
favage love detefted, and that the Pequods 
were not likely to fall a facrifice to 
their hypocrify, proclaimed open war 
with fword and gun. The unfortunate 
SafTacus met his fate. Alas! he died — 
not like Conne&icote, nor Quinnipiog—? 


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but in the field of battle j and the free- 
dom of his country expired with his final 
groan. This mighty conquer ft: was achiev- 
ed by the colonifts of Connecticut, with- 
out the aid of the Mdffuchufets ; never- 
thelefs, Mr. Neal and others have afcrib- 
ed the honour of it to the latter, with a 
view of magnifying their confequence, 
ever Mr. Neal's grand objedt. 

The county of New-London abounds 
chiefly with wool, butter, cheefe, and In- 
dian corn; and contains eight towns, all 
which I (hall defcribe. 

New-London has the river Thames 
on the eaft, and the bay of its own name 
on the fouth, and refembles Iflington. Its 
port and harbour are the beft in the colony. 
The church, the meeting, and court-houfe, 
are not to be boafted of; the fort is tri- 
fling. The houfes in this, as in all the 
towns in the province, are infulated, at 

K 4 the 


the diftance of three, four, or five yards 
one from the other, to prevent th? ra- 
vages of fire. That of John Winthrop, 
Efqj is the beft in the province. The 
townfliip is ten miles fcjuare, and com-* 
prizes five parifhes, one of which is epif- 
copal. Abimeleck, a defcendant of the 
firfl. Englifh-made king of Mohegin, re* 
fides with his fmall party in this townfhip. 
He is a king to whom the people pay 
fome refpedt, — becaufe they made him fo. 

The people of this town have the ere* 
dit of inventing tar and feathers as a pro- 
per punifhment for herefy. They firft 
infli&ed it on quakers and anabaptifts. 

New-London has a printing prefs, 
much exercifed in the bufinefs of pam* 
phlets, fermons, and newfpapers. It is em- 
ployed by the Governor and Company, 
and is the oldeft and beft in the colony, 
Newhaven, Hertford, and Norwich, alfo, 
have each a printing prefs ; fo that the 
people are plentifully fupplied with news, 


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politics, and polemical divinity. A 

very extraordinary circumftance happened 
here in 1740. Mr. George Whitefield 
paid them a vifit, and preached of riglh 
teoufnefs, temperance^ and a judgment to 
to come, which roufed them into the be- 
lief of an heaven and an hell. They be- 
came as children wean e d and pliable as 
melted wax, and with great eagernels 
cried out, What Jhall we do to be faved ? 
The preacher, then in the pulpit, thus 
anfwered them, ,c Repent — do violence 
to no man— part with your felf-righteouf- 
nefs, your filk gowns, and laced petti- 
coats — burn your ruffles, necklaces, jewels, 
rings, tinfelled waiftcoats, your morality 
and bifhops books, this very night, or 
damnation will be your portion before the 
morning-dawn." The people, rather thro* 
fear than faith, inftantly went out on the 
eommon, and prepared for heaven, by 
burning all the above enumerated goods, 
excepting that of ftlf-righteoufnefs, which 



feet to the weft. — The following couplet 
was written by a traveller on the fteeple : 

" They're fo perverfe and oppofite, 
" As if they built to God in fpitc." 

The reafons for the Angular cuftom of 
burying the dead with their feet to the weft, 
are two, and fpecial : firft, when Chrift 
begins his millcnarian reign, he will come 
from the weft, and his faints will be in a 
ready pofture to rife and meet him : 
fecondly, the papifts and episcopalians 
bury their dead with their feet to the 

Was I to give a charadter of the people 
of Norwich, I would do it in the words 
of the famous Mr. George Whitefield, 
(who was a good judge of man kind,) in his 
farewel-fermon to them a fhort time be- 
fore his death; viz. u When I firft 
preached in this magnificent houfe, above 
20 years ago, I told you, that you were 
part bead, part man, and part devil $ 
at which you were offended. I have fince 


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thought much about that expreflion, and 
confefs that for once I was miftaken. I 
therefore take this laft opportunity to 
correct my error. Behold ! I now tell you, 
that you are not part man and part beaft, 
but wholly of the devil." 


Lyme ftands on the eaft fide of Con- 
nedticut river, oppofite Saybrook ; and 
refembles Lewiflham. The townfhip is 
16 miles long, and 8 wide; and forms 


four pariflies. 

Saybrook is fituated on the weft fide of 
Connecticut river, 20 miles weft from 
New-London, and refembles Batterfea. 
The townfhip is twenty miles long and 
fix wide, and forms four parifhes. This 
town was named after the Lords Say and 
Brook, who were faid to claim the coun- 
try, and fent, in 1634, a Governor and 
a large number of people from England 
to build a fort and fettle the colony. See 

pp. 9 — 18. 

ik«2 Hnsro R Y .OF 

hpp. 9 — 18. It was rpriricipally owing 
to.nhis fort that Hertford and Newhaven 
oinadc good their fettlcments : it prevent- 
jed iSaffacus from giving timely aid to 
,fCorine<aicote and-Quinnipiog. 

Saybrook is greatly fallen from its an- 
cient grandeur j but is, notwithftanding, 
-drefortcd to With great veneration, as the 
^parejit town of the whole calony. The 
ztocribs of the ifif ft fettlers arelheld 'facred, 
?md i travellers feldom ;pafs them, without 
the compliment of a figh .©rtran On 
one moffy ftone is written, 

A j -"'Here pride is calm'd, and deariris^I^fe. ,, 

rr.. iln 1709, this town was honoured by 
saiconventfon of -contending independent 
-divittes, who were pleafed with no con- 
■ iftkution in church or ftate.— This rriulti- 
bOKte of fe^arians, after long debates, 
-.jttM|li(hed a book, called," The Saybrook 
i Platform, containing the dodtrines arid 
bnoles of thb churches in Connecticut. 
:&hexm\y irovbky in this fyftem is, • that 

- ' Chrift 

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Chriftfoas delegated his minifterial, king- 
ly, and prophetical power, one half to the 
people, and the other half to the mini- 
(hsrs. This proportion may be thought 
in Europe a very ftrange one ; but, if it 
be recolledted, that the people in the pro- 
vince claimed all power in heaven and 
on earth, and that theminifters had no 
other ordination thah what came from 
the people, it will appear, that the mini- 
fters hereby gained from the people ooe 
half of their power. From this article 
originated the pradHce of the right hand 
of fellowfhip at the ordination of a mifli- 
fler. No one can be a minifter, till he 
receives the right hand of the meffenger 
who reprefents fix deacons from fix con- 
gregations. The conclufion of this re- 
verend and venerable body is, c< The 
« Bible is our rule/' 

Mr. Neal fays, p. 610, " That every 
u particular fociety is a compleat church, 
" having power to exercife all ecclefiafti- 

" cal 


" cal jurifdidiion, without appeal to any 
€< claffis : — they allow of fynods for coun- 
u cil and advice, but not to exercife the 
$t power of the keys." 

If Mr, Neal had taken the trouble to 
read the Hiftory of the Church of Mafla- 
chufets-Bay, written by the Reverend 
Mr. John Wife, a minifter of that church, 
he would have found that the contrary to 
all he has advanced is the truth. The 
people of that province held the keys from 
i6ao to 1650: then the minifters got 
poffeffion of them by their own vote, 
which was palled into a law by the Ge- 
neral Affembly.. The vote was, " There 
'* cannot be a minifter, unlefs he is or- 
u dained by minifters of Jefus Chrift." 
Thus commenced ordination by minifters 
in New-England. The people were alarm- 
ed at the lofs of the keys, and alked the 
minifters who had ordained them? The 
minifters anfwered, The people. Then, 
replied the people, we are the minifters 

of . 

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of Jefus Chrift, or you are not minifters ; 
and we will keep the power. A violent 
conteft enfued between the people and the 
minifters; but the latter, by thtr help of the 
General Aflembly, retained the power of 
the keys, and inftituted three ecclefiaftical 
courts, viz. 1. The Minifterand his Com- 
manicants; 2. The Aflbciation ; and, 3. 
The Synod. There lies an appeal from 
one to the other of thefe courts, all which 
exercife Co much ecclefiaftical power, that 
few are eafy under it. The firft court 
fufpends from the communion; the fe- 
cond re- hears the evidence, and confirms 
or fets afide the fufpenfion ; the fynod, 
after hearing the cafe again, excommuni- 
cates or difcharges the accufed. From 
this laft judgment no appeal is allowed 
by the fynod. The excommunicated 
perfon has no other refource than petition- 
ing the General AfTcmbly of the province, 
which fometimes grants relief, to the 
great grief of the fynod and minifters. 

L But 


But the reprefcntatives commonly pay 
dear for overlooking the conduit of the 
fynod at the next election. 

The people of Connecticut have adopt- 
ed the fame mode of difcipline as prevails 
in Maffachufets-Bay ; but call a fynod a 


To fliew that the tynods are not quite 
fo harmlefs as Mr. Neal reports, I will 
give an inftance of their authority exer- 
cifed in Connecticut in 1758. A Mr. 
Merret, of Lebanon, having loft bis 
wife, with whom he had lived childlefs 
40 years, went to Rhodc-Ifland, and 
married a niece of his late wife, which 
was agreeable to the laws of that province. 
By her having a child, Mr. Merret of- 
fered the fame for baptifm to the mi- 
nifter of whofe church he was a mem- 
ber. The minifter refufed, becaufe it 
was an inceftuous child ; and cited Mer- 
ret and his wife to appear before himfelf 
and his church upon an indidtment of 


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inceft. Merret appeared 5 the verdift 
was, Guilty of inceft. He appealed to 
the affociation, which alio found him 
guilty of inceft. He again appealed to 
the confociation, and was again found 
guilty of inceft. — Merret and his wife were 
then ordered to feparate, and to make a 
public confeffion, on pain of excommu- 
nication. Merret refufed ; whereupon 
theminifter read the aft of excommunica- 
tion, while the deacons (hoved Merret 
out of the meeting-houfe. Being thus 
caft out of the fynagogue, and debarred 
from the converfation of any-one in the 
parifti, it was well faid by Mr. Merret, 
*' If this be not to exercife the power of the 
u keys, I know not what it is." The poor 
man fooD after died of a broken heart, 
and was buried in his own garden by fuch 
chriftian brethren as were not afraid of 
the mild puiflance of the confociation. 

Mr. Neal fays, alfo, p. 609, after evin- 
cing his jealoufy at the growth of the 

L 2 church 





church of England in New - England, 
" If the religious liberties of the plants- 
€i tbns are invaded by the fetting up of 
u fpiritual courts, &c. they will feel th,e 
" fad effedls of it."" In this fentiment I 
agree with Mr. Neal ; but, unluckily, 
he meant the bifhop's courts, and I mean 
the courts of fynods, compofed of his 
<c meek, exemplary, and learned divines of 
New-England," but who are more fevere 
and terrible than ever was the ftar-cham- 
ber under the influence of Laud, or the 
inquifuion of Spain. The ecclefiaflieaj 
courts of New-England have, in the courfe 
of 1 60 years, bored the tpngues with 
hot needles, cut off the ears, branded 
the foreheads of, and banifhed, imprifon- 
ed, and hanged, more quakers, baptifts, 
adamites, ranters, epifcopalians, fpr wh^t 
they call herefy, blafphemy, and witch- 
craft, than there are inftances of perfecu- 
tion in Fox's book of Martyrology, or 
under the bifhojps of England fince the 


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death of rtenry VIII. And yet IVlr. 
Neal was afraid of fpiritual courts, and 
admired the pradtice of the New-England 
churches, who only excommunicate of- * 
fenders, delivering them over to the civil 
magiftrate to torttire and ruin. If I re- 
member right, I ohce faw the inquifitioft 
in Portugal adt after the very fame man- 
ner, when the fricft faid, cc We deal with 
" the foul, and the civil magiftrate with 
■' the body." 

Time not having deftroyed the walls 
of the fort at Say brook, Mr. Whitefield, 
in 1740, attempted to bring them down, 
as Jo(hua brought down thofe of Jerico, 
to convince the gaping multitude of his 
divine miflion. He walked feven times 
round the fort with prayer and rams- 
horns blowing — he called on the angel of 
Joftma to come and do as he had done at 
the walls of Jericho ; but the angel was 
deaf, or on a journey, or afl-ep; and 
therefore the walls remained. Here- 

L 3 upon 


upon George cried aloud, u This town is 
accurfed for not receiving the meflenger 
of the Lord ; therefore the angel is de- 
parted, and the walls (hall (land as a mo- 
nument of a finful people." Ucjhook of 
the duji of bis feet again ft them, and de- 
parted, and went to Lyme. 

Kxllingfwortb is ten miles weft from 
Saybrook, lies on the fea, and refembles 
Wandfworth. The townihip is eight 
miles fquare, and divided into two pa- 
rifhes. This town is noted for the refi- 
dencc of the Rev. Mr. Elliot, common- 
ly called Dr. Elliot, who difcovered the 
art of making fteel out of (and, and 
wrote a book on hu&andry, which will ' 
fecure him a place in the Tepiple of 

Windham, the fecond county in the 
ancient kingdom of Saflacus, or colony of 
Saybrook, is hilly ; but, the foil being rich, 


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has excellent butter, cheefe, hemp, wheat, 
Indian corn, and horfcs. Its towns are 

Windham refembles Rumford, and 
ftands on Winnomantic river. Its meet, 
ing-houfe is elegant, and has a fteeple, 
bell, and clock. Its court- houfe is 
fcarcely to be looked upon as an orna- 
ment. The townfhip forms four pa- 
rishes, and is ten miles fquare. 

Strangers are very much terrified at 
the hideous noife made on fummer even- 
ings by the vaft numbers of frogs in 
the brooks and ponds. There are about 
thirty different voices among them j fome 
of which refemble the bellowing of a 
bull. The owls and whipperwills com- 
plete the rough concert, which may be 
heard feveral miles. Perfons accuftomed 
to fuch ferenades are not difturbed by 
them at their proper ftations ; but one 
night, in July, 1758, the frogs of an arti- 

L 4 ficiid 


ficial pond, three miles fquare, and about 
fiye from Windham, finding the water 
dried up, left the place in a body, and 
marched, or rather hopped, towards 
Winnomantic river. They were under 
the neccffity of taking the road and go- 
ing through the town, which they en- 
tered about midnight. The bull frogs 
were the leaders, and the pipers followed 
without number. They filled a road 40 
yards wide for four miles in length, and 
were for fcveral hours pafling through 
the town, unufually clamorous. The in* 
habitants were equally perplexed and 
frightened : fome expefied to find an army 
of French and Indians; others feared an 
earthquake, and diflblution of nature. The 
conftcrnation was univerfal. - Old and 
young, male and female, fled naked from 
their beds with worfe (hriekings than 
thofe of the frogs, The event was fatal to 
feveral women. The men, after a flight 
of half amile, in which they met with many 


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broken (hins, finding no enemies in pur- 
fuit of them, made a halt, and fum- 
moned refolution enough to venture back 
to their wives and children ; when they 
diftindtly heard from the enemy's camp 
thefe words, Wight, Helderken, Dier, 
T£te. This laft they thought meant 
treaty 5 and plucking up courage, they 
fent a triumvirate to capitulate with the 
fuppofed French and Indians. Thefe 
three men approached in their Hurts, and 
begged to fpeak with the General ; but 
it being dark, and no anfwer given, they 
were forely agitated for fome time be- 
twixt hope and fear \ at length, however, 
they difcovered that the dreaded ini- 
mical army was an army of thirfiy frogs 
going to the river for a little water. 

Such an incurfion was never known 
before nor lince \ and yet the people of 
Windham have been ridiculed for their 
timidity on this occafion. I verily be- 
lieve an army under the Duke of Marl- 


borough would, under like circumftances, 
have afted no better than they did. 

In 1768, the inhabitants on Connec- 
ticut river were as much alarmed at an 
army of caterpillers, as thofe of Wind* 
ham were at the frogs ; and no one 
found reafon to jeft at their fears. Thofe 
worms came in one night and covered 
the earth on both fides of that river, to 
an extent of three miles in front and two in 
depth. They marched with great fpeed, 
and eat up every-thing green for the 
fpace of 100 miles, in fpite of rivers, 
ditches, fires, and the united efforts of 
1000 men. They were, in general, 
two inches long, had white bodies cover- 
ed with thorns, and red throats. When 
they had finiflied their work, they went 
down to the river Conne&icut, where 
they died, poifoning the waters until 
they were waflied into the fea. This 
calamity was imputed by fojpe to thp 
vaft number of trees and logs lying in the 


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creeks, and to the cinders, fmoke, and 
fires made to confume the wafte wood, 
for three or four hundred miles up the 
Connedticut ; while others thought it au- 
gurated future evils fimilar to thofc in 
Egypt. The inhabitants of the Verd- 
monts would unavoidably have perifhed 
by famine in confequence of the devalua- 
tion of the r e worms, had not a remarkable 
providence filled the wildernefs with wild 
pigeons, which were kiljed by (ticks as 
they fat on the branches of trees in fuch 
multitudes, that 30,000 people lived on 
them for three weeks. If a natural caufe 
may be afligned for the coming of the 
frogs and caterpillars, yet the vifit of the 
pigeons to a wildernefs in Auguft has been 
neceflarily afcribed to an interpolation of 
infinite power and goodnefs. Happy 
will it be for America, if the foiling pro- 
vidence of Heaven produces gratitude, 
repentance, and obedience, amongft her 
children ! 



Lebanon lies on the weft fide of 
Winnomantic river. Its beft ftreet, which 
has good houfes on both fides, is one 
mile long, and 160 \ards wide. An 
elegant meieting, with a fteeple and bell, . 
ftands in the center. The towhfhij) 
is ten miles fquare, and forms four pa- 
rishes. This towii was formerly famous 
for an Indian fchool under the conduft 
of thfe Reverend Dr. Eleazet Wheelock, 
whofe great zeal for the fpiritual good of 
the favages in the wildernefs induced him 
to follicit a collection through England. 
Having met with fuccefs, his fchool at 
Lebanon became a college in the Province 
of Newhampfhire; where he has converted 
his godlinefs into gain, and promifes fair 
to fexcufe Government from the expence 
of a fuperintendent of Indian affairs. 

Coventry lies on the fame river : the 
houfes are ftraggling. The townfhip is 
ten miles fquare, and confifts of two pa- 

Digitized by Google 


rjfhes. Here are two ponds, the one thcee* 
the other four miles long, and half as wide, 
well filled with mackarel and other fiih. 


Mansfield lies eaft of Coventry, on 
Winnomantic and Fundy rivers : the 
houfes are fcattcred. The townfliip is 
eight miles fquare, and divided into two 

Union, and Willington lie on Win- 
nomantic river, forming two parifhes. 
Each townfliip is fix miles fquare. 

Afoford lies on the river Fundy, in a 
townfliip ten miles fquare, and forming 
three parifties. The people of the town 
have diftinguiftied themfelves by a ftrift 
enforcement of the colony laws againft 
heretics, and epifcopalians, for not attend- 
ing their meetings on the Sahbath. 

Wood/lock ^ lies on Quinnibaug, and re- 



fcmblcs Finchley. The townftiip is ten 
miles fquare, and divided into three pa- 
lifties. — Woodftock h^d the honour to 
give birth to the Rev. Thomas Bradbury 
Chandler, D. D. a learned Divine of the 
Church of England, and well known in 
the literary world. 

Killing/ley lies eaft of Woodftock, 
The townfliip, twenty miles long, and 
fix wide, forms three parifhes. 


Pomfret ftands on Quinnibaug river, 
and refembles Batterfea. The townfliip 
is twelve miles fquare, and forms four 
parifhes, one of which is epifcopaL — 
Fanaticifm had always prevailed in the 
county of Windham over chriftian mo- 
deration; when, about the year 1770, after 
many abufes, the epifcopalians found a 
friend in God free Malebone, Efq. who 
built on his own eftate an elegant church, 

which was patronized by the Society for 



Digitized by Googl 


the Propagation of the Gofpcl in foreign 
Parts, who appointed a clergyman. 

We read that David flew a lion and a 
bear, and afterwards that Saul trufted 
him to fight Goliath. In Pomfret lives 
Colonel Ifrael Putnam, who flew a (he- 
bear and her two cubs with a billet of 
wood. The bravery of this a&ion 
brought him into public notice : and, it 
feems, he is one of Fortune's favourites. 
The ftory is as follows : — In 1754, a large 
(he-bear came in the night from her den, 
which was three miles from Mr. Putnam's 
houfe, and took a fow out of a pen of his. 
The fow, by her fqueaking, awoke Mr. 
Putnam, who haftily ran in his (hirt to 
the poor creature's relief ; but before he 
could reach the pen, the bear had left it, 
and was trotting away with the fow in her 
mouth. Mr, Putnam took up a billet of 
wood, and followed the fcreamings of the 
fow, till he came to the foot of a moun- 
tain, where the den was. Dauntlefs he 




entered the horrid cavern ; and, after 
walking and crawling upon his hands and 
knees for fifty yards, came to a roomy 
qell; where the bear met him with great 
fury. He faw nothing but the fire of 
her eyes ; but that was fufficient for our 
hero : he accordingly direfted his blow, 
which at once proved fatal to the bear, 
3pd faved his own life at a moft critical 
moment. Putnam then difcovered and 
killed two cubs and having, though in 
Egyptian darknefs, dragged them and the 
dead fow, one by one, out of the cave, he 
went home, and calmly reported to his fa- 
mily what had happened. The neighbours 
declared, on viewing the place by torch* 

light, that his exploit exceeded thofe of 
Sampfon or David. — Soon afterwards, the 
General Aflemby appointed Mr k Putnam 
a Lieutenant in the army marching againft 
Canada. His courage and good conduct 
raifed him to the rank of Captain the 
next year. The third year he was made 

a Major; 

Digitized by Google 


a Major; and the fourth a Colonel. Put- 
nam and Rogers were the heroes through 
the laft war. Putnam was fo hardy, at a 
time when the Indians had killed all his 
'men, and completely hemmed him in 
upon a river, as to leap into the ftream, 
which in a minute carried him down a 
ftupendous fall, where no tree could pafs 
without being torn in pieces. The In- 
dians reafonably concluded that Putnam, 
their terrible enemy, was dead, and made 
their report accordingly at Ticonderoga; 
but foon after, a fcouting party found 
their fad miftake in a bloody ren- 
contre. Some few that got off declared 
that Putn itn was yet living, and that he 
was the firft fon of Hobbamockow, and 
therefore immortal. However, at length, 
the Indians took this terrible warrior 
prifoner, and tied him to a tree ; where 
he hung three days without food or 
drink. They did not attempt to kill him 

for fear of offending Hobbamockow ; but 

M they 


they fold him to the French at a great 
price. The name of Putnam was more 
alarming to the Indians than cannon; and 
they never would fight him after his 
efcape from the falls. He was afterwards 
redeemed by the Englifti. 

Plainfield and Canterbury lie on Qui- 
nibaug river, oppofite to one another, 
and have much the appearance of Le- 
wifham. Each townfliip is 8 miles 
fquare, and forms two parifhes. 

Voluntown lies on a fmall river, and, 
refemblcs Finchley Common. The town- 
(hip is 15 miles long, and 5 wide, and 
forms three parities, one of which is 
Prefbyterian. This fed has met with as 
little chriftian charity and humanity in 
this hair-brain'd county as the Anabap- 
tifts, Quakers, and Churchmen. The 
Sober DiJJenters of this town, as they flile 
themfelves, will not attend the funeral 
of a Prefbyterian. 



The Kingdom of Connecticote 
forms two counties, viz. Hertford and 
Litchfield, which contain about 15,000 
houfes, and 120,000 inhabitants. 

The county of Hertford excels the 
reft in tobacco, onions, grain of all forts, 
hay, and cyder. It contains twenty-one 
towns, the chief of which I (hall de- 
fcribe, comparing the reft to towns near 

HERTFORD town is deemed the ca- 
pital of the province : it ftands 40 miles 
from Say brook, and the fame diftance 
from Newhaven, on the weft bank of 
Connecticut river, and is formed into 
fquares. The townfhip is 20 miles from 
eaft to weft, and fix in breadth, com- 
prizing fix parifties, one of which is epif- 

The houfes are partly of brick and 
partly of wood, well built, but, as I have 

M 2 obferved 


obferved in general of the towns in Con- 
nedticut, do not join. King's- Street is 
two miles long, and 30 yards wide ; well- 
paved, and cut in two by a fmall river, 
over which is a high bridge. The town 
is half a mile wide. A grand court- 
houfe, and two elegant meetings, with 
fteeples, bells, and clocks, adorn it. In 
1760, a foundation of quarry- ftone was 
laid for an epifcopal church ia this town, 
at the expence of near 300/. on which 
occafion the Epifcopalians had a mortify- 
ing proof that the prefent inhabitants in- 
herit the fpirit of their anceftors. Sa- 
muel Talcot, Efq. one of the Judges 
of the County-Court, with the afliftance 
of a mob, took away the ftoncs, and with 
them built a houfe for his fon. What 
added to fo meritorious an aftion was, its 
being juftified by the General Aflembly 
and the Confociation. 

In 1652, this town had the honour of 
executing Mrs. Greenfmith, the firft 



witch ever heard of in America. She 
was accufed in the indi&ment of pradti- 
ling evil things on the body of Ann Cole, 
which did not appear to be true ; but 
the Reverend Mr. Stone, and other mi- 
nifters, fwore that Greenfmith had con- 
fcfled to them that the devil had had 
carnal knowledge of her. The court then 
ordered her to be hanged upon the indidt- 
ment. — Surely none of thofe learned di- 
vines and ftatefmen ftudied in .the Temple 
or Lincoln's- Inn ! — It (hould feem, that 
every dominion or town(hip was poffefled 
of an ambition to make itfelf famous in 
hiftory. The fame year, Springfield, not 
to be outdone by Hertford, brought Hugh 
Parfons to trial for witchcraft, and the 
jury found him guilty : but Mr. Pincheon, 
the judge, had fome underftanding, and 
prevented his execution till the matter 
was laid before the General Court at Bof- 
ton, who determined that he was not 
guilty of witchcraft. The truth was, 

M 3 Parfons 


Parfons was blefled with a fine perfon and 
genteel addrefs, infomuch that the wo- 
men could not help admiring him above 
every other man in Springfield, and the 
men could not help hating him : — fo 
that there were witnefles enough to 
fwear that Parfons was a wizard, — be- 
caufe he made females love and males 
hate him. 

In Hertford are the following curio- 
fities : i. An houfe built of American 
oak in 1640, the timbers of which are 
yet found, nay almoft petrified : in it was 
born Jonathan Belcher, Efq. Governor 
of Maflachufets-Bay and New-Jerfey. — * 
2. An elm efteemed facred for being the 
tree in which their charter was conceal- 
ed.— 3. A wonderful well, which was 
dug 60 feet deep without any appearance 
of water, when a large rock was met 
with. The miners boring this rock, in 
order to blaft it with powder, drove the 
auger through it, upon winch the wa* 



ter fpouted up with fuch great velo- 
city, that it was with great difficulty the 
well was ftoned. It foon filled and 
ran over, and has fupported, or rather 
made, a brook for above one hundred 

The tomb of Mr. Hooker is viewed 
with great reverence by his difciples. 
Nathaniel, his great grandfon, a minifter 
in Hertford, inherits more than all his 
virtues, without any of his vices. 


Weather sfield is four miles from Hert- 
ford, and more compaft than any towri 
in the colony. The meeting- houfe is of 
brick, with a fteeple, bell, and clock. 
The inhabitants fay it is much larger than 
Solomon's Temple. The townfliip ten 
miles fquare ; parishes four. The peo- 
ple are more gay than polite, and more 
fuperftitions than religious. 

This town raifes more onions than are 
confumed in all New-England. It is a rule 

M 4 with 

1 68 


with parents to buy annually a filk gown 

for each daughter above feven years old, 
till (he is married. The young beauty is 
obliged, in return, to weed a patch of 
onions with her own hands ; which flie 
performs in the cool of the morning, be- 
fore {he dreffes for her breakfaft. This 
laudable and healthy cuftom is ridiculed 
by the ladies in other towns, who idle 
away their mornings in bed, or in gather- 
ing the* pink, or catching the butterfly, 
to ornament their toilets ; while the gen- 
tlemen far and near forget not the Wea- 
thersfield ladies filken induftry. 

Weathersfield was fettled in 1637, by 
the Rev Mr. Smith, and his followers, 
who left Watertown, near Bofton, in or- 
der to get out of the power of Mr. Cot- 
ton, whofe feverity in New-England ex- 
ceeded that of the bifhops in Old En- 
gland. But Mr. Smith did not difcard 
the fpirit of perfecution as the fole pro- 
perty of Mr. Cotton, but carried with 


Digitized by Google 


him a fufficient quantity of it to diftrefe 
and divide his little flock. 

Mtddletown is ten miles below Wea- 
thersfield, and beautifully fituated upon 
the Connedticut, between two fmall 
rivers, one mile afunder, which is the 
length of the town and grand ftreet. Here 
are an elegant church, with a fteeple, 
bell, clock, and organ ; and a large meet- 
ing without a fteeple. The people are 
polite, and not much troubled with that 
fanatic zeal which pervades the reft of the 
colony. The townfhip is ten miles fquare, 
and forms four pariflies, one epifcopal. 
TWs and the two preceding towns may be 
compared to Chelfea. 

The following town?, which lie on 
Connedticut river, are fo much alike, 
that a defcription of one will ferve for the 
whole ; viz. Wind for, Eaft-JVindfor, Glaf- 
tonbury, Endfidd, Nuffield, Chatham, Had- 

dam, and Eajl-Haddam. -Wind/or, the 

beft, is cut in two by the river Ett, which 



wanders from the north weft 100 miles 
through various meadows, towns, and 
villages, and refembles Bedford. Town- 
fhip ten miles fquare, forming three 
| parifties. It was fettled in 1637, by the 
Rev. Mr. Huet and his aflbciates, who 
fled from religious flavery in Bofton to 
enjoy the power of depriving others of 

The following towns, lying back of 
the river towns, being fimilar in moft 
refpe&s, I (hall join alfo in one clafs $ viz. 
Hebron, Colchefter, Bolton, Toland, Staf- 
ford, and Sommers. 

Hebron is the center of the pro- 
vince ; and it is remarkable that there 
are 36 towns larger, and 36 lefs. It 
is fituated between two ponds, about 
two miles in length, and one in breadth; 
and is interfered by two fmall ri- 
vers, one of which falls into the Con- 
nedticut, the other into the Thames. A 
Urge meeting ftands on a fquare, where 



four roads meet. The town refembles 
Finchley. The townfhip eight miles 
fquare ; five parishes, one is epifcopal. 
The number of houfes is 400; of the 
inhabitants 3200. It pays one part out 
of feventy-three of all governmental taxes; 
and is a bed of farmers on their own 
eftates. Frequent fuits about the Indian 
titles have rendered them famous for their 
knowledge in law and felf-prefervation. 
In 1740, Mr. George White field gave 
them this laconic charader. 41 Hebron," 
fays he t " is the ftrong-hold of Satan ; 
cc for its people mightily oppofe the work 
" of the Lord, being more fond of earth 
u than of heaven." 

This town is honoured by the refi- 
dence of the Rev. Dr. Benjamin Po- 
meroy; an excellent fcholar, an exem- 
plary gentleman, and a mod thundering 
preacher of the new-light order. His 
great abilities procured him the favour 
and honour of being the inftrudor of 



Abimelcck, the prefent King of Mohe- 
gin. He is of a very perfevering, fove- 
reign difpofition ; but juft, polite, gene- 
rous, charitable and without diflimula- 
tion. — Avis alba. 

Here alfo refide fome of the defen- 
dants of William Peters, Efq. already 
fpoken of $ among whom is the Rev* 
Samuel Peters, an epifcopal clergyman, 
who, by his generofity and zeal for the 
Church of England, and loyalty to the 
Houfe of Hanover, has rendered him- 
felf famous both in New and Old Eng- 
land, and in fome degree made an at- 
tonement for the fanaticifm and treafons 
of his uncle Hugh, and of his anceftor on 
his mother's fide, Major-General Thomas 
Harrifon, both hanged at Charing-Crofs 
in the laft century. See pp. 48 — 55, note. 

Colchejier has to boaft of the Rev. 
John Buckley for its firft minifter, whofe 
grandfather was the Rev. Peter Buck- 
ley, of Woodhill, in Bedfordlhire, in Old- 

Digitized by Google 


England $ who, after being filenced by the 
Bifhop for his mifconduft, went to New- 
England in 1635, and died at Concord in 
1658. — John Buckley was a great fcho- 
lar: and, fuffering prudence to govern 
his hard temper, he conciliated the efteem 
of all parties, and became the ornament 
of the Sober Dijfenters in Connecticut. 
He was a lawyer, a phyfician, and a divine. 
He publiflied an ingenious pamphlet to 
prove that the title of the people to their 
lands was good, becaufe they had taken 
them out of the ftate of nature. His 
argument fatisfied many who thought their 
titles were neither legal, juft, nor fcrip- 
tural: indeed, it may feem conclufive, if 
his major proportion be granted, That 
the Englifh found Connecticut in a ftate 
of nature. His fon John was a lawyer 
and phyfician of great reputation, and 
was appointed a judge of the fuperior 
court very young. He and his father 
were fufpeCted to be not found in the 



faith, becaufe they ufed in their prayers, 
From battle and murder \ and from fudden 
death, good Lord deliver us, jot the fake of 
thine only fon, who commands us thus to 

fray, Our Father, &c. (Sc. —Peter 

Buckley was poflefled of a gentleman's 

eftate in Bedford (hi re, which he fold, 
and fpent the produce among his fer- 
vants in Maffachufets-Bay. His pofte- 
rity inColchefter, in Cohnedticut, are very 
rich, and, till lately, were held in great 
efteem; which, however, they loft, by 
conforming to the Church of England. 

There is nothing remarkable to be ob- 
ferved of any of the other towns I have 
clafled with Hebron, except Stafford, 
which pofleffes a mineral fpring that has 
the reputation of curing the gout, fteri- 
lity, pulmony, hyfterics, &c. &c. and 
therefore is the New -England Bath, 
where the lick and rich refort to prolong 
life, and acquire the polite accomplifti- 



Herrington, Farmington, and Symlbury, 
lying weft from Hertford, and on the river 
Ett, will finifh the county of Hertford. 

Herrington is ten miles fquare, and 
forms two pariflies. 

Farmington refetnbles Croydon. The 
townftiip is fifteen miles fquare, and 
forms eight pariflies, three of which are 
epifcopal. Here the meadow land is fold 
at 50I. fterling per acre. 

Symjbury, with its meadows and fur- 
rounding hills, forms a beautiful landlkip, 
much like Maidftone in Kent. The 
townfliip is 20 miles fquare, and con- 
fifts of nine pariflies, four of which are 
epifcopal. Here are copper mines. In 
working one many years ago, the miners 
bored half a mile through a mountain, 
making large cells 40 yards below the fur- 
face, which now ferve as a prifon, by or- 


der of the General Affembly, for fuch of- 
fenders as they chufe not to hang. The 
prifoners are let down on a windlafs into 
thisdifmal cavern, through an hole, which 
anfwers the triple purpofe of conveying 

them food, air, and I was going to fay 

light, bat it fcarcely reaches them. In a 
few months the prifoners are releafed by 
death and the colony rejoices in her 
great humanity, and the mildnefs of her 
laws. This conclave of fpirits impri- 
soned may be called, with great propriety, 
the catacomb of Connecticut. The light 
of the Sun and the light of the Gofpel are 
alike (hut out from the martyrs, whofe 

refurre&ion-ftate will eclipfe the wonder 
of that of Lazarus. It has been remarked 
by the candid part of this religious co- 
lony, that the General Affembly and Con- 
fociation have never allowed any prifoner9 
in the whole province a chaplain, though 
they have fpent much of their time and 
the public money in fpreading the Gofpel 


Digitized by Gbogle 


in the neighbouring colonies among the 
Indians, quakers, and epifcopalians, and 
though, at the fame time, thofe religionifts 
preach damnation to all people who neg- 
left to attend public worfhip twice every 
Sabbath, fafting, and thankfgiving day, 
provided they are appointed by them- 
felves, and not by the King and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain. This well-founded 
remark has been treated by the zea- 
lots as fpringing more from malice than 

I beg leave to give the following inftances 
of the humanity and mildnefs the province 
has always manifefted for the epifcopal 
clergy : 

About 1746, the Rev. Mr. Gibbs, of 
Symfbury, refuting to pay a rate impofed 
for the falary of Mr. Mills, a differ- 
ing minifter in the fame town, was, by 
the Colle&or, thrown acrofs a horfe, 
lafhed hands and feet under the creature's 
belly, and carried many miles in that 

N humane 


humane manner to gaol. Mr. Gibbs was 
half-dead when he got there; and, though 
he was releafed by his church-wardens, 
who, to fave his life, paid the afleffment, 
yet, having taken cold in addition to his 
bruifes, he became delirious, and has re- 
mained in a (late of infanity ever fince. 

In 1772, the Reverend Mr. M02- 
ley,a Miffionary from the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gofpel, at Litchfield, 
was prefentcd by the grand jury for mar- 
rying a couple belonging to his parifli after 
the banns were duly publiflied, and con- 
fent of parents obtained. The Court 
mildly fined Mr. Mozley 20/. becaufe he 
could not fhew any other licence to of- 
ficiate as a clergyman, than what he had 
received from the Bi(hop of London, 
whofc authority the Court determined 
did not extend to Connecticut, which 
was a chartered government. One of 
the Judges faid, c< It is high time to put 
« c a flop to the ufurpations of the Biftiop 

" of 

jy Google 


" of London, and to let him know, that 
u though his licence be lawful, and may 
u impowcr one of his curates to marry in 
H England, yet it is not fo in America $ 
u and if fines would not curb them in 
t( this point, imprifonment fhould." 

The fecond county in the kingdom of 
Conne£licote, and the mod mountainous 
in the whole province, is Litchfield ; which 
produces abundance of wheat, butter, 
cheefe, iron ore, &c. and has many iron- 
works, founderies, and furnaces. It con- 
tains the following 14 towns : 

Litchfield is watered by two fmall ri- 
vers. An elegant meeting, and a decent 
Cburt - houfe, with fteeples and bells, 
ornament the fquare, where three roads 
meet. The bed ftreet is one mile long. 
It refembles Dartford. The townftiip is 
12 miles fquare, and forms five parifties, 
one of which is epifcopal. 

Tho' Litchfield is the youngeft county 

N 2 of 


of Connecticut, yet, in 1766, it fet an ex- 
ample to the reft worthy of imitation. 
The province had always been greatly 
peftered by a generation of men called 
quacks, who, with a few Indian nos- 
trums, a lancet, a glifter-pipe, rhubarb, 
treacle-water, mixed with Roman bombaft 
of vena cava and vena porta, attacked fe- 
vers, nervous diforders, and broken bones, 
and, by the grace of perfeverance, fub- 
dued nature, and helped their patients to 
a paffage to the world of fpirits be- 
fore they were ready. The furgeons 
and phyficians, who were not quacks, 
formed themfelves into a fociety, for 
the encouragement of literature and a 
regular and wholefome practice. But 
their laudable endeavours were difcoun- 
tenanced by the General Aflembly, who 
refufed to comply with their follicitation 
for a charter 5 becaufe the quacks aqd 
people faid, " If the charter were granted, 
the learned men would become too rich 



by a monopoly, as they had in Eng- 
land." The anfwer to this objedtion was, 
" Would it not be better to permit a 
monoply to preferve the health and lives 
of the people, than to fuffer quacks to 
kill them, and ruin the province ?" 
The reply proved decifive in that fanati- 
cal affembly, viz. « c No medicine can be 
fcrviceable without the blefling of God. 
The quacks never adminifter any phyfic 
before the minifter has prayed for a bleff- 
ing ; whereas the learned dodldrs fay, that 
the bleffing is in their phyfic, without the 
prayers of minifters." One do&or propofed 
the trial of a dofe of arfenic ; whether it 
would not kill any- one who would take it, 
though 20 minifters fhould pray againft 
it. Ke was called a profane man — the 
petition was rejedted — and quackery re- 
mains triumphant ! 

New-Milford lies on Ofootonoc river. 
A church and meeting, with fteeples 

N 3 and 


and bells, beautify the town, which re* 
fembles Fulham. The townfhip, twelve 
miles fquare, forms five parifhes, of which 
two are epifcopal. 

Woodbury lies on the farpe river, and 
refembles Kenti(h-Town. The townfhip, 
twelve miles fquare, is divided intQ feven 

parifhes, three of them epifcopal. In 

this town lives the Rev. Dr. Bellamy, 
who is a good fcholar, and a great preach- 
er. He has attempted to (hew a niore 
excellent way to heaven than was known 
before. He may be called the Athenian of 
Connecticut ; for he has publifhed fomer 
thing new to the chriftian worjd — Zuin- 
glius may learn of him. 

The following towns lie alfo on the 
Ofootonoc, viz. Sharon, Kent, Salijbury y 
New-Fairfield, Cornwall, Gofncn, and Ca- 
naan; and all of them refemble Finchley. 
Each townfhip \s ten miles fquare. — 



Sharon forms three parifhes, one of which 
is epifcopal. It is much noted on ac- 
count of a famous mill, invented and 
built by Mr. Joel Harvey, upon his own 
eftate ; for which he received a compli- 
ment of 20/. from the Society of Arts in 
London. The water, by turning one 
wheel, fets the whole in motion. In two 
apartments wheat is ground ; in two 
others, bolted ; in another threfhed 5 in 
a fixth, winnowed ; in the feventh hemp 
and flax are beaten, and in the eighth 
drefied. Either branch is difcontinued at 
pleafure, without impeding the reft. 

The other towns in Litchfield coun- 
ty are, New-Hertford, Torrington, Hart- 
land, and Wincbefier, all which lie on 
the river Ett, The townfhips are fe- 
verally about fix miles fquare, and each 
forms one parifti. 

The Kingdom of Quinnipiog con- 
ftitutes the Dominion of Newhaven, 

N 4 divided 


divided into two counties, viz. Newhaven 
and Fairfield r thefe again divided into 
17 townfhips, about 12 miles fquare each. 
The number of houfes is nearly 10,000, 
and that of the inhabitants 60,000. 

The county of Newhaven is hilly, and 
has a thin foil, enriched, however, by the 

induftry of its inhabitants. The chief 

j . i . ..... 

commodities are, flax, rye, barley, white 
beans, and fait -hay. It contains eight 
towns : four of which lie on the Sound> 
and the other on the back of therm 

Newhaven townfhip comprizes fourteen 
parishes; three of them epifcopal, ^nd 
one Sandemanian. The town, being the 
moft beautiful in New-England, if not 
in all America, is entitled to a minute de- 
scription. It is bounded foutherly by the 
bay into which the river Quinnipiack 
empties itfelf j eafterly and wefterly, by 

two creeks two miles afunder ; and, 

• > ... 

northerly, by a lofty mountain, that ex T 


> . i 

ized by Google 


tends even to the river St. Laurence, and 
forms a high land between the rivers 
Hudfon and Corinedticote ; {landing in a 
plain three miles by two in extent. This 
plain is divided into 300 fquares, of the 
fize of Bloomfbury-fquare, with ftreets 
20 yards wide between each divifion. 
Forty of thefe fquares are already built 
upon, having houfes of brick and wood 
on each front, about five yards afunder ; 
every houfe with a garden that pro- 
duces vegetables fufficient for the fa- 
mily. Two hundred houfes are annually 
erefted. Elms and button-trees furround 
the center fquare, wherein are two meet- 
ings, the court-houfe, the jail, and La- 
tin fchool ; — in the fronts of the adjoin- 
ing fquares are, Yale College, the chapel, 
a meeting, and a church ; — all thefe 
grand buildings, with (leeples and bells. 
The market is plentifully fupplied with 
every neceflary during the whole year, ex- 
cepting greens in winter. But the harbour 



is incommoded by flats near the town, of 
one mile in width, and by ice in winter. 
The former evil is, in feme meafure re- 
medied by long and expenfive wharves ; 
but the latter is incurable. The people, 
however, fay their trade is greater than that 
of Norwich or New-London ; and their 
(hipping, of different burthens, confifts of 
near 200 fail. 

According to Dr. Mather, Newhaven 
was, about 1 646, to have been made a city, 
the intereft of the colony with Crom* 
well's party being then very great j but 
a wonderful phenomenon prevented it. 
As the good Dr. Mather never wanted 
faith through the whole courfc of his m ag- 
nail a, and as the New-Englanders, to the 
prefent time, believe his reports, I will 
here prefent my readers with the hiftory 
of this miracle : 

4( The people of Newhaven fitted out 
a fhip, and fent her richly laden for Eng- 
land, to procure a patent for the colony, 


Digitized by Google 


and a charter for the city.— After the (hip 
had been at fea fome weeks,, there hap- 
pened in New-England a violent ftorm, 
which induced the people of Newhaven 
to faft and pray, to inquire of the Lord 
whether their fhip was in that ftorm, or 
not. This was a real faft ; for the peo- 
ple neither eat nor drank from fun-rife 
till fun-fet. At five o'clock in the after 
noon, they came out of meeting, walk- 
ing foftly, heavily, and fadly, home- 
wards. On a fudden the air thundered, 
and the lightnings Jhone abroad. They 
looked up towards the heavens, when 
they beheld their fhip under full fail, and 
the failors fteering her from weft to eaft. 
She qame over the meeting where they 
had fafted and prayed, and then was met 
by an euroclydon, which rent the fails, 
and overfet the fhip — in a few moments 
flip fell down near the weather-cock 
on the fteeple, and inftantly vanifhed. 
The people all returned to the meeting, 



where the minifter gave thanks to God, 
for anfsvering the defires of his fervants, 
and for giving them an infallible token of 
the lofs of their (hip and charter." 

This, and divers other miracles which 
have happened in New- England, have 
been, and ftill are, ufeful to the clergy in 
eftabliftiing the people in the belief that 
there is a great familiarity between God 
and their minifters. Hence the minifters 
govern the fuperftitious ; whilft the dea- 
con, the lawyer, and the merchant, for 
lucre, wink at the impofition — yet the 
minifters in their turn are governed by 
their abettors. The cafe, upon the whole, 
is this : the minifters govern a multitude 
of fools, and are themfelves governed by 

Thou genius of adventure! that 

carried ft Columbus from eaftern to the 
weftern (hores, the domain of favage 
beafts and favage men, now curfed with 
the demons of fuperftition and fanaticifm, 




oh ! kindle in no other breaft the wifli 
to feek new worlds: — Africa already 

mourns, and Europe trembles I . 

The true charadter of Davenport and 
Eaton, the leaders of the firft fettlers 
of Newhaven, may be learnt from the 
following fadt : — An Englifh gentleman, 
of the name of Grigfon, coming, on his 
travels, to Newhaven, about the year 
1644, was greatly pleafed with its plea- 
fant fituation ; and, after purchafing a 
large fettlement, fent to London for his 
wife and family. But before their arrival, 
he found that a charming fituation, with- 
out the blefling of religious and civil li- 
berty, would not render him and his fa- 
mily happy : he refolved, therefore, to 
quit the country, and return to England, 
as foon as his family fliould arrive, and 
accordingly advertifed his property for 
fale ; when lo ! agreeable to one of the 
Blue Laws, no one would buy, becaufe 
he had not, and could not obtain liberty 



of the fele&men to fell it. The patrio- 
tic virtue of the feledimen thus becoming 
an infurmountable bar to the fale of his 
Newhaven eftate, Mr. Grigfon made his 
will, and bequeathed part of his lands to* 
wards the fupport of an epifcopal clergy- 
man, who fhould refide in that town, 
and the refidue to his own heirs. Having 
depofited his will in the hands of a friend, 
he fet fail, with his family, for England, 
but died on his paffage. This friend 
proved the will, and had it recorded, but 
died alfo foon after. The record was 
dexieroufly concealed by glueing two 
leaves together j and, after fome years, the 
feledtmen fold the whole eftate to pay 
taxes, though the rent of Mr. Grigfon's 
houfe alone in one year would pay the taxes 
for ten. Some perfons, hardy enough to 
exclaim againft this glaring injuftice, 
were foon file need, and expelled the town. 
In 1750, an epiicopal clergyman was 
fettled in Newhaven j and, having been 


zed by 


informed of Mr. Grigfon's will, applied 
to the town- clerk for a copy, who told 
him there was no fuch will on record, 
and withal refufed him the liberty of 
fearching. In 1 7 68, Peter Harrifon, Efq. 
from Nottinghamfliire, in England, the 
King's colleftor at the port of New- 
haven, claimed his right of fearching 
public records ; and, being a ftranger, and 
not fuppofed to have any knowledge of 
Grigfon's will, obtained his demand.— 
The alphabet contained Grigfon's name, 
and referred to a page which was not 
to he found in the book. Mr. Harrifoa 
at fir ft fuppofed it to have been torn out; 
but, on a clofer examination, difcovered 
one leaf much thicker than the others. 
He put a corner of the thick leaf into his 
mouth, and foon found it was compofed 
of two leaves, which with much difficulty 
having feparated, he found Grigfon's will! 
To make fure work, he took a copy of it 
himfelf, and then called the clerk to draw 



and atteft another; which was done* 
Thus furnifhed, Mr. Harrifon inftantly 
applied to the feledtmen, and demanded 
a furrender of the land which belonged 
to the church, but which they as promptly 
refufed ; whereupon Mr. Harrifon took 
out writs of ejedtment againft the pof- 
feffors. As might be expedted, Mr. Harri* 
fon, from a good man, became, in ten 
days, the word man in the world $ but, 
being a generous and brave Englifliman, 
he valued not their clamours and curfes, 
though they terrified the gentlemen of the 

law. Harrifon was obliged to be his own 
lawyer, and boldly declared he expect- 
ed to lofe his caufe in New-England ; 
but after that he would appeal, and try 
it, at his own expence, in Old England, 
where juftice reigned. The good people, 
knowing Harrifon did not get his bread by 
their votes, and that they could not baffle 
him, refiened the lands to the church 
on that gentleman's own terms ; which in 

a few 


a few years will fupport a clergyman in 
a very genteel manner. The honeft fe- 
le&men yet poflefs the other lands, though 
report fays Mr. Grigfon has an heir of 
his own name, refiding near Holborn, in 
London, who inherits the virtues of his 
anceftor, and ought to inherit his eftate. 

The fad and awful difcovery of Mr. 
Grigfon's will, after having been con- 
cealed above 100 years, would have con- 
founded any people but thofe of New- 
haven, who ftudy nothing but religion 
and liberty. Thofe pious fouls confoled 
themfelve9 by comparifon : " We are no 
c< worfe, M faid they, " than the people of 
41 Bofton and Windham county/' The 
following fa<3 will explain this juflification 
of the faints of Newhaven: 

In 1740, Mrs. Curfette, an Englifh 
lady, travelling from New-York to Bof- 
ton, was obliged to {lay feme days at 
Hebron; where, feeing the church not 
fintthed, and the church- people fuffer- 

O ing 


fering great perfections, (he told them 
to perfevere in their good work, and (he 
would fend them a prefent when (he got 
to Bofton. Soon after her arrival there, 
Mrs. Curfette fell fickand died. In herwill 
(he gave a legacy of 300I. old tenor (then 
equal to 100I. fterling) to the church of 
England in Hebron ; and appointed 
John Hancock, Efq. and Nathaniel Glo- 
ver, her executors. Glover was alfo her 
refiduary legatee. The will was obliged 
to be recorded in Windham county, be- 
caufe fome of Mrs. Curfette's lands lay 
there. Glover fent the will by Deacon 
S— H — , of Canterbury, ordering him to 
get it recorded, and keep it private, left 
the legacy ihould build up the church. 
The Deacon and Regifter were faithful to 
their truft, and kept Glover's fecret twenty- 
Jive years. At length the Deacon was 
taken ill, and his life was fuppofed in great 
danger. Among his penitential confef- 
fions, he told of his having concealed 


Digitized by Google 


Mrs. Curfette's will. His confident went 
to Hebron, and informed the wardens, 
that for one guinea he would difcover a 
fecret of 300/. old tenor conftquence to the 
Church. The guinea was paid, and the 
fecret difclofed. A demand of the legacy 
enfued. Mr. Hancock referred to Glo- 
ver ; and Glover faid he was neither 
obliged to publifli the will, nor pay the 
legacy : it had lapfed to the heir at law. 
It being difficult for a Connedticut man 
to recover a debt in the Maflachufets- 
Bay, and vice verfa, the wardens were 
obliged to accept from Mr. Glover 30/. in- 
ftead of 300/. fterling; which fum, allow- 
ing 200/. as lawful fimple intereft at fix" 
per cent, for 25 years, ought in equity to 
have been paid.— This matter, however, 
Mr. Glover is to fettle with Mrs. Cur- 
fette in the other world. 

Newhaven is celebrated for having given 
the name of pumkin-heads to all the New- 
Englanders. It originated from the Blue 

O 2 Laws, 


Laws, which enjoin every male to have 
his hair cut round by a cap. When caps 
were not to be had, they fubftituted the 
hard (hell of a pumkin, which being put 
on the head every Saturday, the hair is 
cut by it all round the head. What- 
ever religious virtue is fuppofed to be de- 
rived from this cuftom, I know not ; but 
there is much prudence in it : firft, it pre- 
vents the hair from fnarling ;— fecondly, 
it faves the ufe of combs, bags, and 
ribbons ;— thirdly, the hair cannot incom- 
mode the eyes by (ailing over them $— 
and, fourthly, fuch perfons as have loft 
their ears for herefy, and other wicked- 
nefs, cannot conceal their misfortune aod 

Cruelty and godlinefs were, perhaps, 
never fo well reconciled by any people, 
as by thofe of Newhaven, who are alike 
renowned for both. The unhappy ftory 
of Deacon Potter has eternized the infa- 
my of their Blue Laws, and almoft an- 

Digitized by Google 


nexcd to their town the name of Sodom. 
The Deacon had borne the beft of cha- 
radters many years : he was the peaces 
maker, and an enemy to perfecution ; 
but he was grown old, was rich, and 
had a young wife. His young wife had 
an inclination for a young huftand, and 
had waited with impatience for the death 
of her old one, till at length, refolving, if 
poffiblej to accelerate the attainment of 
her wiflies, {he complained to the Ma- 
giftrate, that her hufband did not render 
her due benevolence. The Judge took 
no notice of what (he faid. She then 
fwore that her hufband was an apoftate j 
and that he was fonder of his mare, bitch, 
and cow, than of her; in which alle- 
gations (he was joined by her fon. The 
Deacon was brought to his trial con- 
demned, executed with the beafts, and 
with them alfo buried in one common 
grave. Dr. Mather, with his ufual quantity 
of faith, fpeaks of the Deacon as verily 

O 3 guilty, 


guilty, as having had a fair, legal, and can- 
did trial, and convicted on good and fcrip- 
tural evidence. I am willing to allow 
the Dodtor as much fincerity as faith. 
He had his information from the party 
who condemned the Deacon ; but there 
are manufcripts, which I have feen, that 
ftate the matter thus : Deacon Potter was 
hanged for herefy and apoftacy, which 
confifted in (hewing hofpitality to Gran- 
gers, who came to his houfe in the night, 
among whom were Quakers, Anabaptifts, 
and Adamites. This was forbidden by 
the Blue Laws, which punifhed for the 
iirft and fecond offence with fines, and 
with death for the third. His wife and 
fon betrayed him for hiding the fpies, and 
fending them away in peace. The court 
was contented with calling his compli- 
cated crimes beaftiality ; his widow, with 
a new hufband $ and the fon, with the 
eftate ; while the public were deceived 

by the arts of a wicked junto, -I have 



related this ftory to (hew the danger of 
admitting a wife to give evidence againft 
her hufoand, according to the Blue Laws; 
and to caution all readers againft cre- 
diting too much the hiftorians of New- 
England, who, either from motives of 
fear or emolument, have, in number- 
lefs inftances, defignedly difguifed or con- 
cealed the truth. Such perfons, whofe 
ftubborn principles would not bend to 
this yoke, were not fuffered to fearch the 
colonial records; and thofe who have 
dared to intimate that all was not right 
among the firft fettlers, have been com- 
pelled to leave the country with the dou- 
ble lofs of charadter and property. 

To Newhaven now belongs Yale 
College, of which I have promifed 
my readers a particular account. It was 
originally, as already mentioned, a fchool, 
eftablifhed by the Rev. Thomas Peters, 
at Saybrook, who left it his library at his 
death. It foon acquired the diftinguifh- 

O 4 ing 


ing appellation of Schola Illuflris $ and, 
about 17Q0, was honoured by the Ge- 
neral Affembly with a charter of in- 
corporation, converting it into a college, 
under the denomination of Tale College, 
in compliment to a gentleman of that 
name, governor of one of the Weft-India 
iflands, and its greateft benefaftor. The 
charter conftitutes a prefident, three tu- 
tors, twelve overfeers, and a treafurer; 
and exempts it from any vifitation of the 
Governor or Affembly, in order to fecure 
it againft the controul of a King's Gover- 
nor, in cafe one fliould ever be appointed. 
I have already obferved, that a power of 
conferring Bachelors and Mafters degrees 
was granted by the charter; and that the 
corporation have thought proper to aflume 
that of conferring Dodtors degrees. By 
the (Economical regulations of the Col- 
lege, there are, a profeffor in divinity, 
mathematics, and natural philofophy $ 
and four claffes of ftudents, which were 
. « 

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at firft attended by the prefident and the 
three tutors ; but the prefident has long 
been excufed that laborious talk, and a 
fourth tutbr appointed in his Head, Each 
clafs has its proper tutor. Once a week 
the prefident examines them all in the 
public hall, fuperintends their difputa- 
tions and fcientific demonftrations, ahd, 
if any ftudent appears to be negligent, 
orders him under the care of a fpecial 
tutor j a fligma which feldom fails of pro- 
ducing its intended effe£t. Greek, Latin, 
Geography, Hiftory, and Logic, are well 
taught in this feminary; but it fuffers 
for want of tutors to teach the Hebrew, 
French, and Spanilh languages. Oratory, 
mufic, and politenefs, are equally negledted 
here and in the colony The ftudents at* 
tend prayers, every morning and evening, 
at fix o'clock. The prefident, profeflbr, 
or one of the tutors, reads and expounds 
a chapter ; then a pfalm is fung, after 
which follows a prayer. This finifhed, 



each clafs repairs to its tutor. The hours 
of ftudy are notified by the College 
bell, and every fcholar feen out of his 
room is liable to a fine, which is feldom 
excufed. The amufements for the even- 
ings are, not cards, dancing, or mufic, 
but reading and compofnion. They are 
allowed two hours play with the foot-ball 
every day. Thus cooped up for four 
years, they underftand books better than 
men or manners. They then are admit- 
ted to their Bachelors degree, having un- 
dergone a public examination in the arts 
and fciences. Three years afterwards they 
are admitted to their Mafters degree, pro- 
vided they have fupported moral charac- 
ters. The ceremony ufed by the prefi- 
dent on thefe occafions is to deliver a 
book to the intended Matter in Arts, fay- 
, ing, <c Admitto teadfecundum Gradum in 
<c Artibus, pro more Academiarum in 
" Anglia 5 tradoque tibi hunc librum, una 
" cum poteftatepublice praelegendiquotiel- 



u cunque ad hoc munus evocatus fueris." 
For Bachelors the fame, mutatis mutandis. 
A diploma on vellum with the feal of 
the College is given to each Mafter, and 
figned by the prefident and fix fellows or 
overfeers. The firft degrees of Matters 
were given in 1702. The fhidents of 

late years have amounted to about 180. 
They dine in the common-hall at four 
tables, and the tutors and graduates at a 
fifth. The number of the whole is 
about 200. 

Yale College is built with wood, and 
painted of a flty colour - 9 is 160 feet long, 
and three ftories high, befides garrets. In 
1754, another building, of brick, 100 feet 
long, and alfo three ftories high, exclu- 
five of the garrets, with double rooms 
and a double front, was added, and 
called Connecticut Hall. About 1760, 
a very elegant chapel and library were 
eredted, with brick, under one roof. 
But it cannot be fuppofed the latter is to 



be compared with the Vatican or Bod- 
leian. It confifts of 8 or 10,000 vo- 
lumes in all branches of literature, but 
wants modern books ; though there is 
a tolerable fufficiency, if the corporation 
would permit what they call Bifliops and 
Arminiah books to be read. Ames's 
Medulla is allowed, while Grotius de 
Veritate Religionis is denied. It was 

lately prefented with a new and valuable 
apparatus for experimental philofophy. 
The whole library and apparatus were 
given by various perfons, chiefly Englifli. 

The General Aflembly have endowed 
this College with large trads of land, 
which, duly cultivated, will foon fupport 
the ample eftabliftiment of an Univerfityj 
but, even at prefent, I may truly fay, 
Yale College exceeds in the number, and 
perhaps in the learning, of its fcholars, all 
others in Britifh America. 

This feminary was, in 1^17, removed 
from Saybrook to Newhaven j the extra- 


ordinary caufe of which tranfition, I fhall 
here lay before the reader. 

Say brook dominion had been fettled 
by Puritans of fome moderation and de- 
cency. They had not joined with Mafla- 
chufets-Bay, Hertford, and Newhayep, 
in fending home agents to affift in the 
murder of Charles I. and the fubverfion 
of the Lords and Biihops : — they had re- 
ceived Hooker's heretics, and flickered 
the apoftates from Davenport's millenarian 
fyftem: — they had fhewn an inclination to 
be dependent on the Mother-country, 
and had not wholly anathematized the 
church of England. In fhort, the peo- 
ple of Hertford and Newhaven fufpedted 
that Saybrook was not truly pro- 
teftant; that it had a paffion for the 
leeks and onions of Egypt $ and that the 
youth belonging to them in the Schola 1{- 
/u/lris were in great danger of imbib- 
ing its lukewarmnefs. A vote, there- 
fore, paffed at Hertford, to remove 



the college to Weathersfield, where the 
leaks and onions of Egypt would not be 
thought of; and another at Newhaven, 
that it fhould be removed to that town, 
where Chrift had eftablifhed his dominion 
from fea to fea, and where he was to be- 
gin his millenarian reign. About 1715, 
Hertford, in order to carry its vote into 
execution, prepared teams, boats, and a 
mob, and privately fet oft" for Saybrook, 
and feized upon the college apparatus, 
library, and ftudents, and carried all to 
Weathersfield. This redoubled the jea- 
loufy of the faints at Newhaven, who 
thereupon determined to fulfil their vote; 
and, accordingly, having collefted a mob 
fufficient for their enterprize, they fet 
out for Weathersfield, where they feized 
by furprize the ftudents, library, &c. &c. 
But on the road to Newhaven they were 
overtaken by the Hertford mob, who, 
however, after an unhappy battle, were 
obliged to retire with only part of the li- 

Digitized by Google 


brary and part of the ftudents. Hence 
fprung two colleges out of one. The quar- 
rel increafed daily, every body expeding 
a war more bloody than that of Saffacus ; 
and, no doubt, fuch would have been 
the cafe, had not the peace-makers of 
Maflachufets-Bay interpofed with their 
ufual friendfliip, and advifed their dear 
friends of Hertford to give up the college 
to Newhaven. This was accordingly 
done in 17 17, to the great joy of the crafty 
Maflachufets" who always greedily feek 
their own profperity, tho' it ruin their beft 
neighbours. The college being thus fixed 
forty miles farther weft from Bofton than 
it was before, tended greatly to the in- 
tereft of Harvard College - y for Saybrook 
and Hertford, out of pure grief*, fent 
their fons to Harvard, inftead of the 
college at Newhaven. This quarrel con- 

* Pure grief means, in New-England, anger and 



tinued till 1764, when it fubfidcd in a 
grand continental confociation of mini- 
iters, which met at Newhaven to confqlt 
the Spiritual good of the Mohawks and 
©ther Indian tribes, the beft method of 
preferving the American vjne, and the 
proteftant, independent liberty of America : 
-~-a good preparatory to rebellion againft 
Great Britain. 

The Rev. Mr. Naphthali Dagget is the 
fourth prefident of Yale College fince its 
removal to Newhaven. He is an excel- 
lent Greek and Latin fcholar, and 
reckoned a good Calviniftic divine. Tho' 
a ftranger to European politenefs, yet, 
poflefling a mild temper and affable dif- 
pofition, the exercife of his authority is 
untin&ured with haughtinefs. Indeed, 
he feems to have too much candour, and 
too little bigotry, to pleafe the corpora- 
tion, and retain his poft, many years. 

The Rev. Mr. Nchemiah Strong, 
the college profeffor, is alfo of an ami- 



able temper, and merits the appoint* 

Were the corporation lefs rigid, and 
more inclined to tolerate fome reafonable 
amufements and polite accomplifhments 
among the youth, they would greatly add 
to the fame and increafe of the college ; 
and the fludents would not be known by 
every ftranger to have been educated in 
Connecticut. The difadvantage under 
which they at prefent appear, from the 
want of addrefs, is much to be regretted. 

Brainford ) Guildford^ and Mi/ford, are 
much alike. 

Guildford is laid out in fquares after 
the manner of Newhaven, 20 of which 
are built upon. The church and two 
meetings ftand on the center fquare. One 
of the meetings is very grand, with a 
fteeple, bell, and clock. The pariflies in 
it are eight, three of them epifcopal. 

This town gave birth to the Reverend 

P Samuel 


Samuel Johnfon, D. D. who was the firft minifter in Conne&icut, and the 
firft prefident of King's College in New- 
York. He was educated and became 
a tutor in the college at Saybrook; 
was an ornament to his native country, 
and much efteemed for his humanity and 

The Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, in 
a fermon he preached in the great meet- 
ing, gave the character of the people of 
Guildford in 1740. His text was, Anoint 
mine eyes with eye-falve. After pointing 
out what was not the true eye-falve, he 
faid, u I will tell you what is the true 
" eye-falve : — it is faith— it is grace — it 
u is fimplicity— it is virtue — it is virgin's 

« c water Ah, Lord ! where can 

u they be found ?— Perhaps, not in this 
" grand affembly." 

I have frequently quoted the Rev. Mr, 
George Whitefield, — without that ludi- 
crous intention which, poffibly, the reader 




may fufpedfc me of. I admire his general 
charadter, his great difcernment, his know- 
ledge of mankind, his piety, his .good- 
nefs of heart, his generofity, and hatred 
of perfecution, though I think his zeal 
was fometimes too fervent. I ever view- 
ed him as an inftrument of heaven, as 
the greateft Boaoarges and bleffing Ame- 
rica ever knew. He turned the profligate 
to God ; he rouzed the lukewarm chri- 
ftrian ; he tamed the wild fanatic, and 
made Felix tremble. It is true, he has 
alfo made wifemen mad j but this is the 
natural effeft of the word, which is the fa- 
vour of life and the favour of death at one 
and the fame time. New-England, be- 
fore his coming, was but the flaughter- 
houfe for heretics. He was admired by 
the opprefied epifcopalians, the trembling 
quakcrs, the bleeding baptifts, &c. &c. 
He was followed by all fedts and parties* 
except the Sober DiJJenters^ who thought 
their craft in danger. He made peace 

P 2 where 


where was no peace ; and even his ene- 
mies praifed him in the gate. White- 
field did what could not have been done 
without the aid of an omnipotent arm ; 
he planted charity in New-England, of 
which the increafe has been a thoufand 
fold. — He is landed where the wicked 
ceafe from troubling ; where his works of 
faith, love, and charity, cloath him ; and 
where the Glory of Eternity bleffes him 
with a welcome ineffably tranfporting.— 
May his virtues be imitated ; his imper- 
fections forgiven j and his happinefs ob- 
tained by all ! 

Wallingford, Durham, Waterbury, and 
Darby, finifli the county of Newhavcn. 
. r-Wallingford is the beft of the four: 

it lies on Quinnipiack river, and forms 
eight parifhes, two of which are epifcopal. 
The Town-ftreet is one mile long, and the 
houfes ftand pretty thick on both fides. 
The church, and two meetings, one with 
a fteeple, bell, and clock, ftand in the 



middle of the ftreet. — The grave-ftones 
point out the characters of the firft fettlers. 
An extradt frorji one follows : 

m w 

" Here lies the body of Corporal Mofes Atwater, 
** who left England in 1660, to enjoy liberty 
" of confeience in a howling wildernefs." 

The fecond county in the kingdom of 
Quinnipiog is Fairfield. It is fituated 
weft of Ofootonoc river, and contains nine 
townfliips : five of which lie on the fea, 
and refemble one another ; and on the 
back of them are fituated the four others, 
which alfo have a mutual refemblance. 
The foil is rich and uneven : the chief 
productions, excellent wheat, falt-hay, and 
flax. Thofe townfhips which lie on the 
fea, are Fairfield y Norwa/k, Stamford^ 
Greenwich^ and Stratford. This laft I 
fliall defcribe, 

Stratford lies on the weft bank of Ofoo- 
tonoc river, having the fea or Sound on 
the fouth. There are three ftreets run- 

P 3 ning 



ning north and fouth, and ten caft and 
weft. The beft is one mile long. On the 
center fquare ftand a meeting with a 
fteeple and bell, and a church with a 
fteeple, bell, clock, and organ. It is a 
beautiful place, and from the water has 
an appearance not inferior to that of Can- 
terbury. Of fix parilhes contained in it, 
three are epifcopal. The people are faid 
to be the moft polite of any in the colony, 
owing to the Angular moderation of the 
town in admitting, latterly, Europeans to 
fettle among them. Many perfons pome 
alfo from the iflands, and fouthern pro- 
vinces, for the benefit of their health. 
* ■ ■ ■ • 

Here was eredted the firft epifcopal 
church in Connedticut. A very extra- 
ordinary ftory is told concerning the occa- 
fion of it, which I (hall give the reader 
the particulars of, the people being a$ 
fanguine in their belief of it as they are 
of the fhip's failing pver Newhaven. 

An ancient religious rite, called the 



Pawwaw, was annually celebrated by the 
Indians; and commonly lafted feveral 
hours every night for two or three weeks. 
About 1690, they convened to perform 
it on Stratford point, near the town. 
During the nodturnal ceremony, the Eng- 
lifli law, or imagined they faw, devils rif? 
out of the fea wrapped up in Iheets of 
flame, and flying round the Ind&n camp, 
while the Indians were fcreaming, cutting, 
and proftrating themfelves before their 
fuppofed fiery gods. In the midft of the 
tumult, the devils darted in among them, 
feized feveral, and mounted with them 
into the air ; the cries and groans ifliiing 
from whom quieted the reft. In the morn- 
ing, the limbs of Indians, all (hrivel- 
led, and covered with fulphur, were 
found in different parts of the town, 
Aftonifhed and terrified at thefe fpeilacles, 
the people of Stratford began to think the 
devils would take up their abode among 
them, and called together all the mini- 

P 4 iters 


fters in the neighbourhood, to exorcife 
and lay them. The minifters began and 
carried on their warfare with prayer, 
hymns, and abjuration j but the paw- 
waws continued, and the devils would 
not obey. The inhabitants were about 
to quit the town, when Mr. Nell fpoke 
and faid, " I would to God that Mr. 
Vifey, the epifcopal minifter at New- 
York, was here ; for he would expel all 
thefe evil fpirits." They laughed at his 
advice; but, on his reminding them of 
the little maid who dire&ed Naaman to 
a cure for his leprofy, they voted him 
their permiflion to bring Mr. Vifey at 
the next pawwaw. Mr. yifey attended 
accordingly, and as the pawwaw com- 
menced with howlings and hoop?, Mr. 
Vifey read portions of the holy fcripturs, 
litany, &c. The fea was put into great 
piotion 5 the pawwaw flopped; the In- 
dians difperfed ; and never more held a 
pawwaw in Stratford. The inhabitants 




were ftruck with wonder at this event, 
and held a conference to difcover the rea- 
fon why the devils and pawwawers had 
obeyed the prayers of one miratfter, and 
had paid no regard to thofe of fifty. Some 
thought that the reading the holy fcrip- 
ture, others that the litany and Lord's 
prayer,— fome again that the epifcopal 
power of the minifter, and others that 
all united were the means of obtaining 
the heavenly bleffing they had received. 
Thofe who believed that the holy fcrip- 
tures and litany were effedtual againft the 
devil and his legions, declared for the 
church of England ; while the majority 
afcribed their deliverance to a complot 
between the devil and the epifcopal mi- 
nifter, with a view to overthrow Chrift's 
vine planted in New- En gland. Each 
party ailed with more zeal than prudence. 
The church, however, increafed, though 
opprefled by more perfections and cala- 
mities than were ever experienced by pu- 



ritans from bifliops and pawwawers. 
Even the ufe of the Bible, the Lord's 
prayer, the litany, or any part of the 
prayer-book, was forbidden ; nay, mini- 
fters taught from their pulpits, according 
to the Blue Laws, cc that the lovers of 
Zion had better put their ears to the 
mouth of hell, and learn from the whif- 
pers of the devils, than read the bifhops 
books while the churchmen, like 
Michael the archangel contending with 
the devil about the body of Mofes, dared 
not bring againft them a railing accufa* 
tion. — But this was not all. When the 
epifcopalians had colle&ed timber for a 
church, they found the devils had not 
left the town, but only changed their 
habitations— had left the favages and en- 
tered into fanatics and wood. In the 
night before the church was to be begun, 
the timber fet up a country-dance, flap- 
ping about, and flying in the air, with as 
much agility and fulphureous ftench as 


zed by Google 


ever the devils had exhibited around the 
camp of the Indian pawwawers. This 
alarming circumftance would have ruined 
the credit of the church, had not the 
epifcopalians ventured to look into the 
phenomenon, and found the timber to 
have been bored with augers, charged with 
gun powder, and fired off by matches 
a difcovery, however, of bad confequence 
in one refpeft— it has prevented the 
annalifts of New-England from publifh- 
ing this among the reft of their miracles. 
About 1720, the patience and fufferings 
of the epifcopalians, who were then but 
a handful, procured them fome friends 
even among their perfecutors ; and thofe 
friends condemned the cruelty exercifed 
over the churchmen, quakers, and ana- 
baptifts, in confequence of which they 
firft felt the effedb of thofe gentle wea- 
pons, the New-England whifperings and 
backbitings 5 and at length were openly 
ftigmatized as Arminians and enemies of 



the American vine.— This condu&of the 
Sober Dijjenters increafed the grievous fin 
of moderation ; and near twenty of their 
minifters, at the head of whom was Dr. 
Cutler, prefident of Yale College, declared, 
on a public commencement, for the church 
of England. Hereupon, the General 
Aflcmbly and Confociation, finding their 
comminations likely to blaft the Ameri- 
can vine, inftantly had recourfe to flat- 
tery, larded over with tears and promifes, 
by which means they recovered all the 
feceflbrs, but four, viz. Dr. Cutler, Dr. 
Johnfon, Mr. Whitmore, and Mr. Brown, 
who repaired to England for holy orders. 
— Dr. Cutler hafl the misfortune to fpend 
his life and great abilities in the fanatical, 
ungrateful, and fadtious town of Bolton, 
where he went through fiery trials, Alin- 
ing brighter and brighter, till he was de- 
livered from New-England perfecution, 
and landed where the wicked ceafe from 
troubling. — Dr. Johnfon, from his natu- 


ral difpofition, and not for the fake of 
gain, took pity on the negle&ed church 
at Stratford, where for 50 years he fought 
the bead of Ephefus with great fucceis. 
The Dodtor was under the bountiful pro- 
tedtion of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gofpel in foreign parts, incorpo- 
rated by William III. to fave from the 
rage of republicanifm, heathenifm, and 
fanaticifm,all fuch members of the church 
of England as were fettled in our Ameri- 
can colonies, factories and plantations, 
beyond the fea. — To the forefight of that 
monarch, to the generous care and pro- 
tedtion of that fociety, under God, are 
owing all the loyalty, decency, chriftiani- 
ty undefiled with blood, which glimmer 
in New-England.-— Dr. Johnfon, ha- 
ving fettled at Stratford among a neft of 
zealots, and not being affaflinated, other 
diffenting minifters were induced to join 
themfelves to the church of England, 
among whom were Mr. Beach and Mr. 



Punderfon. Thofe genttemfen could not 
be wheedled off by the Affembfy and 
Confociation j they per fevered, and ob- 
tained names among the Literati that Witt 
never be forgotten. 

The four remaining toWns of Fairfield 
county, viz. Newtown, Reading, DanAury, 
and Ridgfield, lie behind the tovfrns on 
the fea. I ftiall defcribe the beft of 
them, which is, 

Danbury. It has much the appear- 
ance of Croydon ; and forms five pariffaefc, 
one of which is epifcopal, and another 
Sandemanian; a third is called Baftard 
Sandemanian, becaufe the minifter refufefc 
to put away his wife, who is a fecond 
wife. This town was the refidence, and 
has now the tomb, of the learned and in- 
genious Rev, Mr. Sandeman, well known 
in the literary world. He was the faireft 
and moft candid Calvinift that ever wrote 
in the Englifli language, allowing the 
natural confequences of all his propo- 



fitions. He taught that a Bifhop muft fee 
the hulband of one wife; that is, he 
muft be married before he was ordained i 
and, if he loft his wife, he could not 
marry a fecond : that a Bifhop might 
drefs with ruffles, a red coat and fword ; 
that all the converted brothers and fitters, 
at their coming into church, ought to fa- 
lute with an holy kifs ; that all true 
chriftians would obey their earthly king : 
for which tenets, efpecially the laft, the 
Sober Dijfettters of Conne&icut held him 
to be an heretic. 

It is ftrikingly remarkable, that near 
one half of the people of the Dominion 
of Newhavcn are epifcopalians, though 
it was firft fettled by the moft violent of 
puritans, who claimed fo much liberty to 
themfelves that they left none for others. 
The General Aflembly computed that the 
church of England profeflbrs amounted to 
one-third of the whole colony in 1770. 



Hence has arifen a queftion, how it came 
pafs, that the church of England in- 
- creafed rapidly in Conne&icut, and but 
(lowly in Maflachufets-Bay and Rhode- 
Ifland ? The reafon appears obvious to 
me. It is eafier to turn fanatical farmers 
from their bigotry, than to convert fana- 
tical merchants, fmugglers, and fifliermen. 
Pride and gain prevent the two firft, and 
ignorance the laft, from worfhiping the 
Lord in the beauty of Holinefs. The 
General Affembly of Rhode-Ifland never 
fupported any religion ; nay, left, religion 
fliould chance to prevail, they made a 
law that every-one might do what was 
right in his own eyes, with this provifo, 
that no one fliould be h olden to pay a 
note, bond, or vote, made or given to 
fupport the Gofpel. Thus, barbarifm, 
inhumanity, and infidelity, muft have 
over-run the colony, had not its good 
fituation for trade invited Europeans to 
fettle therein.— As to the people of Maf- 



fachufets-Bay, they, indeed, had the higtu 
eft pretenfions to religion ; but then it 
was fo impregnated with chicane, mer- 
cantile policy, and infincerity, that infi- 
delity got the better of fanaticifm, and 
religion was fecretly looked upon as a 
trick of ftate. Connefticut was fettled 
by people who preferred the arts and fci- 
ences to the amufements which render 
Europe polite ; whence it has happened 
that there boys and girls are at once 
amufed and improved with reading, writ- 
ing, and cyphering, every winter's night, 
whilft thofe in the neighbouring colonies 
polifh themfelves at cards, balls, and maf- 
querades. In Connecticut, zeal, though 
erroneous, is fincere : each fed believes 
religion to be a fubftantial good ; and fa- 
naticifm and prejudice have turned it into 
fuperftition, which is ftronger than reafon 
or the laws of humanity. Thus, it is 
very obfervable, that* when any perfons 
conform to the church of England, they 



leave neither their fuperftition nor zeal at 
the meetings ; they retrench only fanatt- 
cifm and cruelty, put on bowels of mer- 
cy, and pity thofe in error. It (hould 
be added, that every town in the co- 
lony is by law obliged to fupport a 
grammar - fchool, and every parifli an 
Englifh fchool. From experience, there- 
fore, I judge, that fuperftition with know- 
ledge and fincerity is more favourable to 
religion than fuperftition with ignorance 
and infincerity; and that it is for this 
reafon the church thrives in Connec- 
ticut, and exifts only in the other New- 
England provinces. In further fupport 
of my opinion, I (hall recite the words 
of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, 
in his firft tour through America, in 
1740. He then found the people of 
Conne&icut wife in polemical divinity, 
and told them that much learning had 
made them mad ; that he wifhed to leave 
them with, u Jleep on and take your rejl 


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in the Bible, in Baxter, Gouge, and Bun- 
yan, without the knowledge of Bifhops 

Perfons who fuppofe churchmen ia 
Connecticut poffeffed of lefs zeal and fin- 
cerity than the various feds among the 
diflen,ters, are under a miftake - 9 for they 
have voluntarily preferred the church un- 
der every human difcouragement, and 
fuffered perfecution rather than perfecute. 
Conducing themfelves upon this truly 
chriftian, though impolitic principle, they 
have, in the fpace of fixty years, hu- 
manized above fixty thoufand puritans, 
who had ever been hating and perfe- ' 
cuting one another : and thqugh the Gene- 
ral Aflembly and Confociation are alarmed 
at the progrefs of chriftian moderation, 
yet many individuals among them, per- 
ceiving that perfecution declines where- 
ever the church prevails, blefs God for 
its growth ; whilft the reft, more zealous 
for dominion, and the politics of their an- 

Q^z ceftors 


ceftors the regicides, than for the gofpcl 
of peace and love, compafs fea and land 
to export and diffufe that intolerant fpi- 
rit which overthrew the eaftern church, 
and has curfed the weftern. For this pur- 
pofe, they have fent New-England mi- 
nifters as miffionaries to the fouthern co- 
lonies, to roufe them out of their religi- 
ous and political ignorance j and, what is 
very aftonifliing, they fucceeded beft with 
the epifcopal clergy, whofe immorality, 
vanity, or love of felf-government, or fome 
lefs valuable principle, induced them to 
join the diffenters of New-England againft 
an American Biftiop, from a pure inten- 
tion, they faid, of preferving the church 
of England in America. If their reward 
be not pointed out in the fable of the Fox 
and Crane, they will be more fortunate 
than moft men. Other miffionaries were 
difperfed among theSixNations of Indians, . 
who were .under the care of the clergy and 
fchoolmafters of the Society for the Pro- 

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pagation of the Gofpel. There, for a 
time, wonders were effected ; the Indians 
were made drunk with zeal. But when 
their fanaticiftn was abated, they curfed 
the prpteftaqt religion, and ordered the 
miftifters of all denominations to depart 
out of their country in a fixed time, on 
pain of death. Another band of .faints* 
went to Nova Scotia, to convert the un- 
converted under the clergy appointed by 
the Bifliop of London ; among whom, 
however, meeting with little encourage- 
ment, they Jhook off the duft of their feet 
againji them, and returned home. Thefe 
peregrinations, the world was taught to 
believe, were undertaken folely to advance 
the interefts of religion 5 but righteouf 
nefs and peace have not yet kiffed each, 
other in New-England : and, befides, the 
pious pretences of the Sober Diffenters ill 
accorded with their bitter revilings of the. 
Society for the Propagation of the Gofpel,. 
for fending clergymen to promote the 


fpiritual good of the churchmen among 

It is worthy of efpecial notice, that, 
among all the epifcopal clergy hitherto 
fettled in Connecticut, only one of them 
has been accufed, even by their enemies, 
of a fcaftdalous life, or of any violation 
of the moral law* They have exeroifed 
more patience, refignation, and felf-de- 
rtial, under their Various trials, fatigues, 
and oppreffions, than can be paralleled 
elfewhere in the pfefent century. The 
countenance of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gofpel in foreigrt Paris, and 
an allowance of about 650/, per ann. be- 
tween 18 of them, have proved the means 
of averting from the profeffors of the 
church of England that rigour tvhidh has 
conftantly marked the conduft of the 
General Aflembly and Confociation to- 
wards anabaptifts, quakers, &c. &c. Had 
the bifliops (hewn as much concern for 
the welfare of the church of England 



in America as the Society has done, they 
would have prevented many reproaches 
being caft upon them by the diffenters as 
hireling (hepherds, and have fecured the 
affediions of the American clergy, in 
every province, to themfelves, to their 
King, and the Britifh government. If 
the religion of the church of England 
ought to have been tolerated and fupport- 
ed in America, (which, confidering the 
lukewarmnefs of the bifhops in general, 
even fince the Reftoration of Charles II. 
feems to have been a dubious point,) po- 
licy and juftice fhould long ago have in- 
duced the King and Parliament of Great- 
Britain to have fent bifhops to America, 
that churchmen might at leaft have been 
upon an equal footing wkh diffenters. 
Againft American bifhops I have never 
heard of any objection, either from the 
diffenters, or the epifcopal clergy fouth 
of Delaware river, fo powerful as the 
following , ct That the church of Eng- 

Q_4 land 



land increafes in America, without bifhops, 
fafler than it does in England, where are 
bifhops to fpare." If the diffenters in 
America err not in advancing as a fad, 
that, fince 17 15, the church of England 
under bifhops has been upon the de- 
cline, and the proteftant diffenters upon 
the increafe, in England ; it may be but 
natural to fuppofe that the diflenters in 
America wifh to have the Englifh bi- 
ihops refident there, and the diffenters 


in England to retain them, as they ap- 
pear to be fo beneficial towards the 
growth of the diffenting intereft here: 
and fo the diffenters in both countries 
difputing about the refidence of the bi- 
fhops, merely becaufe the abfence of 
them is difadvantageous to the one, and 
their prefence advantageous to the other, 
would it not be the beft way of ftrength- 
ening the intereft of both thofe parties, 
and weakening that of the church of 
England, to retain half the bifhops in 


Digitized by Google 


England, and fend the other half to Ame- 
rica? Againft this plan, furely, no diflen- 
ter could objetf: : it will neither add to 
the national expencc, nor to the difad- 
vantage of England or America ; lince it 
promifes to be equally ferviceable to the 
proteftant diflenting intereft on both fides 
the Atlantic, and will reconcile a diffe- 
rence between the proteftant diflenters 
that has been fuppofed in New-England 
to be the reafon of bifliops not being fent 
to above one million of epifcopalians in 
America, who are left like flieep in a 
wildernefs without a fliepherd, to the 
great danger of the proteftant diflenting 
religion in thofe parts. Nor can it be 
apprehended that this plan of dividing the 
bifliops will meet with the difapproba- 
tion of the epifcopalians, except a few 
licentious clergymen in the American 
fouthern colonies, who dread their Lord- 
ftiips fober advice and coercive power. 
Of all the wonders of the Englifti 



church, the greateft is, that the rulers of 
it fhould hold epifcopacy to be an inftitu- 
tion of Chrift, and that the Gofpel is to 
be fpread among all nations, and, at the 
fame time, fhould refufe the American 
churchmen a bilhop, and the fanatics and 
heathen all opportunities of enjoying the 
Gofpel difpenfation in the purity and luftre 
with which it fhines in the mother-country. 
If bifhops are neceflary, let America have 
them ; if they are not neceflary, let them 
be extirpated from the face of the earth : 
for no one can be an advocate for their 
exiftence merely for the fupport of pomp, 
pride, and infolence, either in England 
or America, 

The Englifh and Dutch have always 
kept their colonies under a ftate of religious 
perfecution, while the French and Spa- 
niards have ailed with generofity in that 
refpeft towards theirs. The Dutch pref- 
byterians in New- York were hejd in fub- 
ordination to the claflis of Amfterdam, 



till, a few years fince, they difcovfcred that 
fubjeftion to be anticonftitutional and 
oppreffive 5 upon which a majority of 
the minifters, in their ccetus, ere&ed a 
claffis for the ordination of minifters, and 
the government of their churches, in de- 
fiance of the ecclefiaftical judicatory at 
Amfterdam. Mr. Smith, in his Hiftory of 
that province, p. 252, juftifies this fchifm 
upon the following ground : " The ex- 
Ci pence," fays he, " attending the ordi- 
lc nation of their candidates in Holland, 
u and the reference of their difputes to 
lf< the claffis of Amfterdam, is very con- 
" fiderable ; and with what confequences, 
" the interruption of their correfpondenoe 
c< with the European Dutch would bfe 
<c attended, in cafe of a war, well de- 
" ferves their confideration." Neverthe- 
lefs, Mr. Smith agrees with his protcft- 
afct diflenting neighbours, that the Ame- 
rican epifcopalians fuffered no hardlhip 
in being obliged to incur the fame expence 


■ ■ 


in croffing the Atlantic for ordination. 
If the Dutch are juftifiable in their fchifm, 
I cannot perceive why the American 
epifcopalians might not be juftified in a 
like fchifm from the bifliop of London. 
Had the epifcopalians as little averfion to 
fchifm as the proteftant diffenters, the 
clergy north of the Delaware would, in 
1765, have got rid of their regard for an 
Englifo, and accepted of a Greek bifliop, 
whom they could have fupported for half 
the expence their candidates were at in 
going to England for ordination. But 
they were faid by fome to be conscien- 
tious men, while , others faid they were 
IJfachar's fons, couching dqwn beneath their 
bur thefts., 

To proceed in my defcription of the 
country : 

Connecticut is fituated between 41 
and 42 deg. N. lat. and between 72 
and 73 deg. 50 min. W. long, from 



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London. Nbtwithftanding, from this la- 
titude, New-London lies 600 miles 
nearer the line than the capital of Eng- 
land, the winter fets in there a month 
before it does here ; and not only con- 
tinues longer, but is more fevere. This 
extraordinary coldnefs is faid by na- 
turalifts to arife from the vaft frozen lakes 
and rivers, and mountains eternally co- 
vered with fnow, throughout the northern- 
moft parts of America. The mountains 
may have their fhare in producing this 
effedj but I am apt to think the lakes 
and rivers have a contrary influence. If 
I afk, why lands bordering upon them 
are three weeks earlier in their produc- 
tions than lands ten miles diftant, it will 
readily be imputed to the warmth of the 
air, occafioned by the refledtion of the 
fun's rays from the water. On the fame 
principle, I argue, that the rays of the 
fun, multiplied and reflected by ice alfo, 
will render the air warmer.. But it may be 



further faid, that the caufe is, perhaps, 
to be afcribed to the foil's being more 
fandy and loofe near a lake or river, and, 
therefore, naturally warmer, than that 
which is remote and not fandy. I reply, 
that there are loofe, fandy plains, 20 miles 
off any lake or river, three weeks later 
in their produdls* and very perceptibly 
colder than lands upon them. It would be 
to no purpofe to urge, that the damps and 
fogs from unfrozen lakes, rivers, &c. af- 
fedt the diftant, but not the adjacent 
country ; becaufe, I apprehend, there are 
no unfrozen lakes, rivers, &c. in the north 
of America in winter. Befides, if there 
were, the mifts arifing from them would 
naturally be intercepted by the firft moun- 
tains or forefls they approached. But I 
pretend to little philofophical knowledge 
in thefe matters : I write from experience ; 
and can thence, moreover, affert, that 
mountains with fnow upon them are not 

fo cold as they would be without it; and 



that mountains, covered with trees, arc 
the coldcft of all places, but, with- 
out trees, are not fo cold as fbrefts 
on plains. I am clearly of opinion, there- 
fore, that not the lakes or rivers, but the 
infinite quantity of timber in the immenfe 
regions of North America, whether upon 
mountains or not, is the grand caufe of 
the coldnefs of the winters in Connecti- 
cut. I will add, moreover, in fupport 
of my argument, that beafts, in the 
coldeft weather, are obferved to quit the 
woods and woody mountains, for lakes, 
rivers, and the cultivated open country ; 
and that Connedticut, having now loft 
nioft of its timber, is by no means fo in- 
tenfely cold in winter as it was forty 
years ago, and as Sufquehanna is at pre- 
fent, a wildernefs in the fame latitude. 
— The fnow and ice commonly cover the 
country, without rains, from Chriftmas 
to March j then rains, attended with a 
boifterous wind from the north and eaft, 



melt the fnow, which converting brooks 
into rivers, and rivers into feas, in four 
or five days the ice is rent from its groan- 
ing banks, in fuch mighty iheets, as 
(hake the earth for 20 miles. Nature be- 
ing thus in convulfions, the winds turn 
her fits into madnefs, by driving ice upon 
ice, whofe thunders ceafe not till the 

ocean fwallows up the whole. It is 

but natural to fuppofe, that the fummers 
in Connedticut are much hotter than 
thofe in England ; neverthelefs, from 
the clearnefs and ferenity of* the fky, the 
climate is healthy both to natives and fo- 
reigners of all nations. Connedticut is an 
holfpital for .the invalids of the Iflands and 
fouthern provinces; but, in general, they no 
fooner amend their own conflitutions, than 
the peftilence, which rages in that of the 
province, drives them to Rhode-Ifland or 
New-York, where fanaticifm is loft in ir- 
religion. — The people of Connedticut rec- 
kon time almoft five hours later than the 


Digitized by Googi 

edNrtECTiCUTV m 

fehglifh. The 16ngeft day confifts of* 
jSfteen hours, the fhorteft of nine.— The 
brightnefs of the fan, moon, and ftars, 
together with their reverberating rays on 
ice, fnow, waters, trees, mountains, peb- 
bles, and flat ftones, dazzle and weaken 
the eyes of the New-Englanders to fuch 
a degree, that, in general, they are obliged 
to ufe glafles before they are fifty years of 
age. For the moft part, alfo, they have 
bad teeth, which have been afcribed to 
the extreme heats and colds of fummer 
and winter; but, as the Indians and 
negroes, in the fame climate, have re- 
markably good teeth, it may be faid, with 
great reafon, that the many indulgences 
of the one, and the temperance of the 
other, and not the heats and colds, are 
the caufes of bad and good teeth. 

Soil and P*or>ucE.-The foil is various 
in different parts of the province ; in fome 
black, in others brown, and elfewhere 
red, but all rich. Some plains are fandy, 

R and 


and of a whitifh colour ; and thefe pro* 
duce rye, beans, and Indian corn. The 
meadows and low lands are excellent paftu* 
rage, and yield great crops of hay. The 
hills and uplands have a rich, deep foil, but 
are fubjeft to droughts in July and Au- 
guft, which in many places are relieved by 
water drawn from rivers, ponds, and 
brooks, in troughs and ditches. The crops 
of European grain are always good, when 
the fnow, which in general is the only 
manure, covers the earth from Decern* 
ber to March. One acre commonly yields 
from 20 to 30 bufhels of wheat ; of In* 
dian corn, from 40 to 60 bufliels on ri* 
ver land, and from 30 to 40 on hilly 
land : but it is to be obferved, that one 
bufhel of it raife4 on hilly land weighs 
131b. more than a bufhel raifed on river 
land. AH European grains flourifh here ; 
and the grafs is as thick and much longer 
than in England. M^ife, or Indian corn, is 
planted in hillocks three feet apart, five ken- 


Digitized by Google 


nels and two pumkin- feeds in a hillock i 
and between the hillocks are planted ten 
beans irt a hillock : fo that, if the feafoij 
prove favourable, the beans or the pum- 
kins are worth as much as the com, If, 
from an acre, the crop of corn be ap 
bufhels, add the beans and pumkins, 
and it will be equal to 60 bufhels: fo, 
if there be 60 bulhels of corn, a pro- 
portionate growth of beans and pum- 
kins will render the produft equal 
to 180 bufhels. One man plants an 
acre in a day \ in three days he hoes the 
fame three times ; and fix days more 
fuffice for plowing and gathering the crop. 
For thefe ten days work, the price i$ 
thirty fhillings ; and allowing 10s. for the 
ufe of the land, the whole expence is 2/. and 
no more, whilft the corn is worth two {hiU 
lings per bufhel. The gain is feldom lef$ 
than 300, and oftener 600 per cent f It is 
thus that the poor man becomes rich in 
f few years, if prudent and induftrious,— 

R z Th$ 


The limits of Connecticut are reckoned to 
comprize 5,000,000 acres, half of which 
are fuppofed to be fwallowed up in rivers, 
ponds, creeks, and roads. The inhabi- 
tants are eftimated at 200,000; fo that 
there remain but 1 2i acres for each indi- 
vidual. Let it now be confidered, that 
the people buy no provifions from other 
provinces, but, on the contrary, export 
full as much as they confume, and it will 
appear that each perfon has in fadt only 
6^ acres for his own fupport, two of 
which muft be fet apart for the growth 
of wood, the only fuel of the colony. 
Should I not then be juftified in faying 
that Conne&icut is as good and flourifli- 
ing land as any part of Great-Britain ? 

The face of the country refembles 
Devonfliire, Glocefterfhire, Surry, and 
Kent. The farmers divide their lands into 
four, five, and ten acres, by ftone walls or 
ports and rails. The roads from north 
to fouth are generally level and good; 



from eaft to weft, hilly and bad for car- 

The various fruits are in greater 
perfedtion than in England. The peach 
and apple are more lufcious, beautiful, 
and large: iooo peaches are produced 
from one tree $ five or fix barrels of cyder 
from one apple-tree. Cyder is the com- 
mon drink at table. The inhabitants have 
a method of purifying cyder by froft, and 
feparating the watery part from the fpirit, 
which, being fecured in proper veflels, 
and coloured by Indian corn, becomes 
in three months fo much like Madeira 
wine, that Europeans drink it without 
perceiving the difference. They make 
peachy and perry 5 grape, cherry, and 
currant wines ; and good beer of pum- 
kins, molaffes, bran of wheat, fpruce, 
and malt. The fpruce is the leaves and 
limbs of the fir-tree ; their malt is made 
of maife, barley, oats, rye, chets, and 
wheat.— The pumkin, or pompion, i$ 

R 3 one 

fe 4 6 HISTORY OF 

one of the greateft bleffings, &nd held 
very facred, in New-England. It is a 
native of America. From one feed often 
grow 40 pumkins, each weighing from 
40 to 60 pounds, and, when ripe, of the 
colour of the marygold. Each pum- 
kin contains 500 feeds, which, being 
boiled into a jelly, is the Indian infallible 
cure for the ftrangury. Of its meat are 
made beer, bread* cuftards, fauce, mo* 
Jaffes, vinegar, and, on thankfgiving days, 
pies, as a fubftitute for what the Blue 
Laws brand as antichriftian minced pies. 
Its (kin, or fhell, ferves for caps to cut 
the hair by (as already mentioned and 
very ufeful lanthorns.— There are no trees, 
grain, or fruits, growing in England, bu< 
v/hat grow in Connecticut. The Englifli 
oak has been thought much fuperior to 
the American. Whatever policy may be 
in this opinion, I will venture to fay there 
is no truth in it, in refpedt to the white oak 
Of Connecticut* which is tough, clofe, hard, 



And elaftic, as the whale-bone dried. The 
red, black, and chefnut oak, are, indeed, 
much inferior to the white oak. The 
afh, elm, beech, chefnut, walnut, hazel, 
faflafras, famach, maple, and butternut, 
are the chief timber-trees of this province, 
and grow to an amazing bulk. The laft 
is a native of America, and takes its name 
from a nut it produces, of the (hape and 
fize of a pullet's egg, which contains a 
meat larger than any Englifli walnut, in 
tafte like frefti butter : it alfo makes an 
excellent pickle. The butternut furnifhes 
fine, but tender boards 3 and its bark dyes 
black, and cures cutaneous diforders. In 
February this tree yields a fap, of which 
are made fugar, molaffes, and vinegar. 
The upland maple- tree alfo affords a fap 
equally good $ and both faps make a plea- 
fant beverage without boiling, and the belt 
punch ever drank in Connedticut. 

Here are many iron mines, nay moun- 
tains of iron ore > and, if they had 

R 4 beea 


been attended to with the fame diligence 
as the farms, they would have fupplied 
Great Britain with iron, to the great pre- 
judice of Sweden, and other European 
nations. For this commercial lofs, the 
inhabitants are indebted to their own 
quarrel jealoufy, and religious feuds, to- 
gether with the intrigues of their neigh- 
bours. Some pig and bar iron they 
fend, out of pure fpite and folly, to New* 
York or Bofton, to be fhipped for Eng-r 
land by the merchants there, who always 
pay fo much lefs for it, as the duty 
on Swedilh iron amounts to; fo that Con* 
neclicut allows a duty to thofe merchants, 
tvhich they do not pay themfelves. 

Englifh, Barbary, and Dutch horfes 
abound in this province : they are not fo 
heavy, but more mettlefome and hardy 
than in England. Here are more {heep 
than in any two colonies in America: their 
Wool alio is better than that of the fheep in 
{he other colonics, yet not fo fine and good 



as the Englifti. A common (hjeep weighs 
{>olb. and fells for a dollar, or 4*. bd* 
The horned cattle are not fo large as 
the Englifh ; yet there have been a few in- 
fiances of oxen, fix years old, weighing 
19 00 cwt. each. The fat hogs here excel 
any in England; many weigh five or 
600 cwt. Connecticut pork is far fuperior 
to any other. 

There are only two fmall parks of deer 
In Connecticut; but plenty of rabbits* 
hares, grey, black, ftriped and red fquirrels, 
otters, minks, racoons, weazels, foxes, 
\yhappernockers, woodchucks, cubas, and 
flanks. The following defcriptions of 
the four laft-mentioned animals may b§ 
new to the reader : 

The whappernocker is fomewhat big* 
ger than a weazel, and of a beautiful 
brown-red colour. He lives in the woods 
on worms and birds; is fo wild that 
flo man can tame him ; and, as he never 
4}uit$ his harbou; jn the day-time, is only 

. i j« HISTORY OF 

to be taken by traps in the night. Of 
the (kins of thefe animals, which arc co- 
vered with an exceeding fine fur, are 
ttiade muffs at the price of 30 or 40 
guineas apiece: fo that it is not with- 
out reafon the ladies pride themfelves on 
<he pofleffion of this fmall appurtenance of 
female habiliment. 

The Woodchuck, erroneoufly Called 
the badger by fome perfons, is of the fize 
of a large racoon, in form refembles 
a guinea-pig, and, when eating, makes a 
ftoife like a hog, whence he is named 
"Woodchuck* or Chuck of the Wood* 
His legs are fhort $ but his claws fharp, 
leetb ftrong, and courage great, on occa- 
fions of felf-defence. He burrows in the 
earth, feeds on clover and pumkins du* 
fing fummer, and flceps all the winter* 
His flcfli is good to eat, and his fkin 
tfiakes excellent leather. 

The Cuba I fuppofe to be peculiar to 
New-England* The male is of the fize 




of a large cat, has four long tufhes 
fliarp as a razor, is very a&ive in de- 
fending himfelf, and, if he has the firft 
blow, will fpoil a dog before he yields* 
His lady is peaceable and harmlefs, and 
depends for proteftion upon her fpoufe j 
and, as he has more courage than pru- 
dence, always attends him to moderate 
his temper. She fees danger, and he fears 
it not. She chatters. at him while he is 
preparing for battle * and, if (he thinks the 
danger is too great, fhe runs to him, and 
clings about his neck, fcreaming her 
extreme diftrefs — his wrath abates, and 
by her advice they fly to their caves. In 
like manner, when he is chained, and ir- 
ritated into the greatefl rage by an imper- 
tinent dog, his lady, who is never chained, 
will fly about his neck and kifs him, and 
in half a minute reftore him to calmnefs 4 
He is very tender of all his family, and 
fiever forfakes them till death diflblve$ 
their union. — What further fhews the 




magnanimity of this little animal, he 
never manifefts the leaft anger towards 
* his lady, though I have often feen her 
extremely loquacious, and, as I gueffed, 
impertinent to him. How happy would 
the rational part of the creation become, 
if they would but follow the example of 
the'c in;.uona! beafts ! I the more readily 
fuppofe the Cuba to be peculiar to New- 
England, not only from my never having 
yet fcen the creature defcribed, but alfo 
on account of its perverfe obfervance of 
Carnival and neglcd of Careme. 

The Skunk is alio peculiar to America, 
&nd very different from the Pole-Cat, 
which he is fometimes called. He is black 
ftripcd with white j and of the fize of a 
fmall racoon, with a (harp nofe. He 
burrows in the earth like a fox, feeds 
like a fox on fowls and eggs, and has 
flrong teeth and claws like a fox i 
he has long hair, and thick and good 
fori is the beauty of the wildernefs; 


by Google 


walks flow, and cannot run fo fall as a 
man ; is not wild, but very familiar with 
every creature. His tail, which is fhaggy, 
and about one foot in length, he turns 
over his back at pleafure, to make him- 
felf appear larger and higher than he 
really is. When his tail is thus lying on 
his back, he is prepared for war, and ge- 
nerally conquers every enemy that lives 
by air; foron it lies his only weapon, about 
one inch from his body, of rump, in a 
fmall bladder or bag, which is full of an 
eflence, whofe tint is of the brighteift yel~ 
low, and odour fomewhat like the fmeH 
of garlick, but far more exquifite and 
piercing than any volatile fpirit known to 
chemifts. One drop will fcent a houfe 
to fuch a degree, that mufk, with the 
help of brimftone and tar burnt, will not 
expel it in fix months. The bladder 
in which this eflence lies is worked 
by the animal like an engine, pump, 
pr fquirt; and when the creature is 

#flaulted # 


ai&uited, he turns hie head from hU 
enemy 9 and difcharges from his tail the 
eflence, which fills the neighbouring air 
with a mift that deftroys the pofiibility 
of living in it. I have feen a large 
houfe-dog, by one difcharge of the Skunk, 
retire with {hame and ficknefs ; and, at 
another time, a bullock bellowing as if a 
dog had held him by his nofe. Was it 
not for man, no creature could kill this 
animal, which, inftead of the Lion, ought 
to be crowned King of Aniqials, as well 
on account of his virtues and complai- 
iance, as his courage. He knows hi* 
forte; he fears nothing, he conquers all ; 
yet he is civil to all, and never gives, as 
he will not take, offence, His virtues are 
many. The wood of Calamba, which 
cures fainting-fits and ftrokes of the palfy, 
and is worth its weight in gold, is far lefs 
valuable than the above-mentioned e& 
fence of this animal The bag is ex- 
tra&ed whole from bis tail, and the effence 



preferved in glafs $ nothing elfe will con* 
fine it. One drop fufficiently impreg^ 
nates a quart of fpring water $ and half % 
gill of water thus impregnated is a dofe. It 
cures the hiccups, afthmatic, hyfteric, pa* 
ralytic, and hedtic diforders; and the 
odour prevents faintnefs. The flefli of this 
animal is excellent food $ and its oil curei 
fprains, and contra£tion6 of the finews. 

The feathered tribe in Connecticut are, 
turkeys, geefe, ducks, and all kinds of 
ham-door poultry ; innumerable flock* 
of pigeons, which fly to the fouth in 
autumn ; cormorants of all fizes 5 hawks, 
owls, ravens, and crows; partridges, quails, 
heath-hens, blackbirds, fnipes, larks, hi^ 
miiitys, whipperwills, dewminks, ro- 
bins, rens, fwaliows, fparrows, the flax, 
crimfon, white and blue birds, &c. &e, 
to which I muft add the humming-bird, 
though it might wantonly be ftiled the 
emprefs of the honey-bees, partaking with 
them of the pink, tulip, rofe, daify, and 


l$6 HlStOR^ OF 

Dther aromatics.— The partridges in NeW* 
England are near as large as a Darkingj 
fowl; the quails, as an Englifh partridge i 
and the robins twice as big as thofe in 
England. — The dew-mink, fo named 
from its articulating thofe fyllables, is 
black and white> and of the fize of an 
Englifh robin. Its flefh is delicious.—* 
The Humility is fo called, becaufe it fpeak$ 
the word humility, and feldom mounts 
high in the air. Its legs are long enough 
to enable it to out-run a dog for a little 
way 5 its wings long and narrow, body 
maigre, and of the fize of a blackbird's ; 
plumage variegated with white, black, 
blue, and red. It lives on tadpoles, fpawn, 
and worms j has an eye more piercing 
than the falcon, and the fwiftnefs of an 
eagle. Hence it can never be fliot ; for 
it fees the fparks of fire even before they 
enkindle the powder, and, by the extreme 
rapidity of its flight, gets out of reach in 
an inftant. It is never known to light 

upon . 

Digitized by Google 


upon a tree, but is always feen upon the 
ground or wing. Thefe birds appear in 
New-England in fummer only; what 
becomes of them afterwards is not difco- 
vered. They are caught in fnares, but 
can never be tamed. 

The Whipperwill has fo named itfelf 
by its nodlurnal fongs. It is alfo called 
jthe pope, by reafon of its darting with 
great fwiftnefs, from the clouds almoft 
to the ground, and bawling out Pope I 
which alarms young people and the fana«- 
tics very much, cfpecially as they know 
k to be an ominous bird. However, it 
has hitherto proved friendly, always 
giving travellers and others notice of atj 
approaching ftorm, by faluting them 
*very minute with Pope ! Pope ! It flies 
only a little before fun-fet, unleis for 
&\$ purpofe of giving notice of a ftorm. 
It never deceives the people with falfe 
news. If the tempeft is to continue lqqg ? 
£he augurs appear in Socks, and iiothing 


can be heard but the word Pope ! Pope ! 
The whipperwill is about the fize of a 
cuckow, has a fhort beak, long and narr 
row wings, a large head, and mouth 
enormous, yet is not a bird of prey. Un- 
der its throat is a pocket, which it fills 
with air at pleafure, whereby it founds 
forth the fatal words Pope in the day, am} 
Whip-her-l-will in the night. The fuper- 
ftitious inhabitants would have exorcifed 
this harmlefs bird long ago, as an emif- 
fary from Rome, and an enemy to the 
American vine, had they not found out 
that it frequents New- England only in the 
fummer, and prefers the wildernefs to a 
palace. Neverthelefs, many .cannot but 
believe it to be a fpy from fome foreign 
court, an agent of antichrift, a lover of 
perfecution, and an enemy of proteftants, 
becaufe it fings of whipping, ahd of the 
pope, which they think portends cnifery 
#nd a change of religion. 

,7he principle infers are, the hornet, 

Digitized by Google 


bull-fly, glow-bug, humble-bee, and the 
$>laek and yellow wafp. 

The Bull- fly is armed with a coat of 
pail, which it can move from one placf 
to another, as Aiders to a window are 
pipyed. Its body is about an inch long, 
and its horns half an inch, very (harp, 
and ftrong. It has fix feet, with claws 
fharp as needles, and runs faft. It alfo 
flies with fome fpeed. Jn fucking fh^ 
blood or juice of its prey, this creature 
holds the fame in its claws, otherwife the 
prey is carried between its horns. 

The Glow-bug both crawls and flies, 
and is about half an inch long. Thefe 
jnfedts fly in the fummer evenings, near- 
Jy feven feet from the ground, in fuel* 
multitudes, that they afford fufficient light 
for people to walk by. The brightnefs, 
jioweyer, is interrupted by twinklings s 
Jbut they are inftantaneous and fhort as. 
jbofe of the eye; fo that darknefs n9 
jboner takes places than it yaniflies. 


The Humble-bee is almoft as large as 
the humming-bird, but cannot fly near 
fo fafh It builds its neft in the ground, 
where it make3 an honey-comb of the 
fize of a man's hand, and fills it with 
bee-bread, wax, and honey excelling 
that of the honey-bee in tafte. Two or 
three begin, and having ftiortly multi- 
plied to about forty, the young ones leave 
home as foon as they can fly, to begin 
new fettlements. Thefebees are wrongly 
named ; they are warriors, and only want 
quantity of poifon to be more fatal than 
rattle-fnakes. The honey-bees can fting 
but once, while the Humble-bees will 
fting a thoufand times. Their body is 
black and white ; wings of a Doric co- 
lour ; fight piercing hearing quick 
and temper cruel. 

Among the reptiles of Connedticut are 
the black, the water, milk, and ftreaked 
fnakes, all harmlefs. The belled or 
jrattle fnakes are large, and will gorge 3, 



Digitized by Go( 


Common eat. They are feldom feen from 
their rocky dens. Their bite is mortal, if 
not fpeedily cured ; yet they are generous 
and without guile : before they bite, they 
rattle their bells three or four times; but, 
after that, their motion is fwift, and ftroke 
fure. The Indians difcovered, and in- 
formed the Englifh of, a weed, common 
in the country, which, mixed with fpittle, 
will extradt the poifon. 

The toads and frogs are plenty in the 
fpring of the year. The tree-frogs, 
whipperwills, and hooping-owls, fere- 
iiade the inhabitants every night with 
mufic far excelling the harmony of the 
trumpet, drum, and jews-harp. 

The Tree-frog cannot be called an in- 
fed, a reptile, or one of the winged hoft. 
tie has four legs, the two foremoft fhort, 
with claws (harp as thofe of a fquirrcl: 
the hind legs five inches long, and folding 
by three joints. His body is about as big 
as the firft joint of a man's thumb. Un- 

S 3 der 


iJer His throat is a wind-bag, which aflirti 
him in iinging the word I-fa-dc, all the 
night. When it rains, and is very dark, 
he fings the loudeft. His voice is not fd 
pleafing as that of a nightingale j but this 
would be a venial imperfe&ion, if he 
would but keep filence on Saturday nights, 
and not for ever prefer I-fa-ac to Abra^ 
ham and "Jacob. He has more elafticity 
in his long legs thaii any cither creature 
yet knowri. By this means He will leapi 
five yards up a tree, fattening himfeif to 
it by his fore-feet ; and in a moment will 
hop or fpring as far from one tree to ano- 
ther. It is from the finging of the tree- 
frog, that the Americans have acquired 
ihe name of Little Ifadc. Indeed, like a 
certain part of them, the creature appears 
very devout, noify, arbitrary; and phleg- 
matic^ and aflbciates with none but what 
fegree with him in his ways! 

The oyfters, clam§; quauhogs, lobftersj 
kr&fesj iind fifty art inriurtieirabb. lTh£ 

Digitized by Google 


Iliad, bafs, and falmon, more than half 
fupport the province. The fturgeon is 
made no ufe of. From the number of 
feans employed to catch the fifli pafling 
up to the lakes, one might be led to fup- 
pofe the whole muft be flopped * y yet, in 
fix months time they return to the fea 
with fuch multitudes of young ones as 
fill Conne&icut river for many days, and 
no finite being can number them* 

Population and Inhabitants. — 
Connecticut, in proportion to its extent, 
exceeds every other colony of Englifli 
America* as well ih the abundance of 
people as cultivation of foil. The num- 
ber of the firft fettlers at Saybrook, in 
1634, was 200; in 1636, at Hertford, 
106; in 1637, at Newhaven, J 57: in 
all 463, In 1670, the refidents in thefe 
three fettlements amounted to 15,000, of 
whom 20CO were men capable of bea - 
ing arms; the reft, old men, women, and 

S 4 children. 


Children. In i6Soj the refidents vrtf6 
20,000 ; in 1770, 200,000. Hence* if 
appears, that the people of Connecticut 
did, during the 90 years preceding the 
laft-mchtioned date, increafe 2000 each 
year ; i. e. 20,000, in a period ot 90 years, 
doubled their number teii tiiries over. 
Should the 200,000, which exifted in 
Connecticut in 1770, double their num^ 
bcr in the fame manner for the enfuing 
90 years, the province will, in the year 
i860, contain 2,000,0003 and, if the fight- 
ing men fliould then be in the fame pro- 
portion to the reft of the inhabitants, as 
they were in 1670, they will amount to 
no lefs than 266,000. I fee ho reafon in 

nature why it may not be fo. Since 

1670, the emigrations from Europe, or 
elfewhere, to Connecticut* have been 
trifling in comparifon to the emigrations 
from Connecticut to New-Jerfey, New- 
Hampfhire, MalTachufets - Bay, Nova* 
Scotia, &c. &c. 

Digitized by Google 



Manufactures. —The inhabi- 
tants manufacture coarfc and fine flannels, 
linen, cotton, and woolen cloths* woolen 
(lockings; mittens, and gloVes; for their 
own ufe: they fpin much cotton and 
flax; and make common and the beft 
kind of beaver hats. Ship-building is a 
great branch of bufinefs in Conne&icut, 
which is carried on much cheaper than 
in Europe* by means bf faw-mills worked 
by water; The planks are cut by a gang 
of ten or twelve faws, more or lefs, as oc- 
cafion requires, while the carriage is backed 
but once; Great part of the (hip-timber 
is allb cut by water* Anchor-making is 
dofte by water and trip-hammers, without 
much fatigue to the workmen. Diftil- 
lation and paper-making encreafe every 
year* Here are many rope-walks, which 
vrant neither hemp nor flax ; and for- 
merly here were rolling and flitting works* 
but they have been fupprefled by an 
aCl of parliament! to the ruin of many 
families. Com- 


Commerce. The exports of Corii 

hedticut confift chiefly of all forts of pn* 
vifions, pig and bar iron^ pot and pearl 
aflies, ftaves, lumber, boards, iron pots 
and kettles, anchors, planks, hoops, fliin- 
gles, live cattle, horfes, &c. &c. To 
what amount thefe articles are annually 
exported may be judged of frdm the fol- 
lowing very low eftimate : 

Pork — — £93^75° 

Beef ~ — — - j 00,000 
Mutton, — — 5,000 
Horfes, — — * 40,000 
Wheat — 

— 340,000 
Butter, cheele, rye, oats, onions,! 

tobacco, cyder, maife, beans, L 90,000 
fowls, eggs, tallow^and hides, J 
Ships* anchors, cables, cordage, j 
pig and bar iron, pots, ket-( 

1 i t /7 y> 2 

ties, pot and pearl a£hes,f J 
boards, and lumber, j 

1 — — & 


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bcfides hay, fifli, &c. &c. The falmdn^ 
large and final!, are exported both pickled 
and dried. 

In the above ftatement <tf exports; I 
have allowed only for horfes bred in the 
fcolony , and not for thofe brought for expor- 
tation frond Canada and other northern 
parts, which are very numerous. The 
{calculation of the wheat, the common 
pricb of which is three (hillings fterling 
per bufhel, is founded upon the allowed 
fcircumftance of the exportation being 
equal to the confiimption, viz. 2,600,000 
buflielS among 200,000 perfons, accord- 
ing to the acknowledged heceffary por- 
tion of 13 bufhels for one perfon. The 
pork is eftimated afceotding to the re- 
puted number of houfes in the province, 
Viz. 30,000, allowing 1^ barrel for each 
houfe, at 2/. jroi. per barrel. 

The imports, in 1680, when the num- 
ber of inhabitants was 20,000, amounted 
b ib}O0o/. i. e. at the rate of ios. for each 



individual; Suppofing the increafc of 
imports only to keep pace with that of 
the people, they would, in 1770* when 
the province contained 200,000 fouls, 
amount to 1 00,000/ $ but, I believe thatf 
to be not above one quarter of their 

Bofton, New -York, and Newport* 
have the greateft fhare of the exports of 
Conne&ieut, and pay for them in Eng«* 
li(h or Dutch goods, at cent, per cent, 
profit to themfelves, upon a moderate 
computation. What few of them are 
fent by the colony to the Weft- Indies are 
paid for honourably in rum, molafles, 
fugar, fait, brandy, cotton, and money. 

Confequences very prejudicial attend 
the commerce of Connecticut, thus prin-> 
cipally carried on through the medium of 
the neighbouring colonies. I will here 
point out one material inftance. Con-* 
iiecticut pork, a conliderable article of 
fcfrportation* excels all other in America, 


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and fetches a half- penny more per pound. 
Of this difference in price the merchant* 
of New- York, Bofton, &c. have taken 
care to avail themfelves, by mixing their 
own inferior pork with that of Connect 
ticut, and then felling the whole at the 
full price of the latter. This fair dealing 
was managed thus The pork of Con* 
ne&icut is packed up in barrels, each of 
which, according to ftatute regulation, 
1 ttiuft weigh 22olb. and contain not more 
than fix legs and thee half-heads. The 
packer is to mark the barrel before it is 
fliipped,and is liable to a heavy puni(hment, 

if there fhould be found four half-heads 
and feven legs in the barrel when it is 
delivered for exportation. But of large 
pork, two legs and half a head will be a fuf- 
ficient proportion of thofe parts in a barrel. 
This gives the New-York and Boftonian 
merchants an opportunity of taking out 
the beft part of the Connecticut pork, and 
^ubftituting in its place an equal weight of 





fheir own, whereby it often happens, tha$ 
four legs and two half-heads are found io 
a barrel of reputed Conne&icut pork. 
Though it then remains a barrel accord? 
ing to the ftatute, it cannot but be fup- 
pofed that this pradtice mud greatly hurt 
the credit of Conne&icut pork, witty 
all who are not apprized that it pafles 
through the renowned provinces of Maf- 
fachufets-Bay and New-York. 

The people of Connecticut have long 
been fenfible of the many and great im- 
pofitions and difadvantages which befef 
their prefent commercial fyftem ; yet, 
though fufficient power is in their own 
hands, they have no inclination or refo- 
lution to attempt a reformation of it. 
The reafon is, the mutual animofities and 
rancour fubfifting between the dominions 
of New-London, Hertford, aod Newha- 
ven, each of which prefers the general 
ruin of the province to a coalition upoij 
any terms fhort of conqueft. The feeds 

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of this difcord were thus fown by their 
two infidious neighbours. The port of 
New- London is by far the beft in the 
province, and extremely well calculated 
for its capital and grand commercial em- 
porium ; and, about 50 years fince, a 
number of merchants there began to ex- 
port and import goods, feemingly to the 
fatisfa&ion of the whole colony, but to 
the great difpleafure and chagrin of thofe 
of New -York and Bofton, whom it 
threatened with ruin* Something was ne- 
ceffary to be done. The poor Boftonians> 
according to cuftom, privately fent to 
their faithful allies at Hertford, to in- 
fufe into them an idea that their town 
ought to be the capital, and not New- 
London, which belonged to the dominion 
of Saffacus, who had murdered fo many 
chriftians ; adding, that, if they would en- 
gage in fuch an attempt in favour of 
Hertford, the Bofton merchants would 
/upply them with goods cheaper thkn 



they $ould buy them at New-London^ 
The good people of Hertford, forgetting 
their river was frozen five months in the 
year, remembering how they had obtained 
their charter, hating SafTacus, and'loving 
felf, immediately gave into the defigning 
Boftonians fuggeftioos, and refufed to 
receive any more gpods from NewT 
London. The friendly Mynheers of 
New- York played off a fimilar trick 
upon Newhaven, and promifed to fupporl 
that town as the capital of the colony. 
The plots fucceeded. Contention and 
quarrels arofc among the three parties, 
the effedls of which remain to this day. 
The merchants of New-London were 
obliged to quit Connecticut ; and the 
trade of the province was chiefly divided 
between New- York and Bofton, at cent, 
per cent, difadvantage to an ill-natured co* 
lony, and at the fame advantage to its 
cunning neighbours. When party-fpirit 
yields to felkiritere#, New-Londoi* will 


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again become the emporium of Connec- 
ticut, where merchants will fettle and 
import goods from foreign countries at 
35/. per cent, extra profit to the confu- 
mers, and 15/. per cent, extra profit to 
themfelves, and withal fave as much in 
the exports from Connecticut by taking 
the full price and bounty of its goods at fo- 
reign jmrkets, inftead of yielding the 
fame to the people of New- York and 
$ofton, who have too Jong kept 200,000 
people as negroes upon their own farms, 
to fupport and maintain twice 20,000 
artful citizens. Thus has ConnefticuJ:, 
by contention and folly, impoverifhed, 
and kept in obfciirity, the moft frpitfql 
colony in America, to fupport the fame 
and grandeur of Bofton and New-Yorlc 
among the trading nations of Europe. 
When I view the lefs fertile foil of Bofton, 
the conference of merchants, the pride of 
the pretended Gofpel minifters, the blind- 
liefs of bigotry, and the mercantile igno- 


ranee of farmers, I forgive Bofton, New- 
York, and Rfrode-Iftand, but condemn 
Connecticut. I will leave a legacy to the 
people of my native country, which pof- 
fibly may heal their divifions, and render 
them partial , to their own province, as the 
Boftoniaos are to theirs. It conlifc of 
two lines : 


« But if men knaves and fools will be, 
"They'll be afs-ridden by all three." 

Revenue and Expenditure.— In 
1680, the whole corporation were efti- 
mated to bf worth 120,000/. They then 
had 30 fmall veflels, 26 churches, and 
(as above mentioned) 20,000 inhabitants. 
If their value had increafed only in pro- 
portion with the inhabitants, who, I have 
laid, amounted to 200,000 in 1770, 
the corporation \yould then have been 
worth no more than 1,200,000/. a film 
not equal to 1 os. per acre, though in a 
great meafure cultivated, and furrounded 


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with ftone walls, which alone coft ten (hit* 
lings by the rod: but in that year, viz. 
land fold in Connecticut from 4 to 50 
pounds p$r acre $ their vcffch alfo had 
encreafcd to above 1100 1 and the churches 
(Jeaft in proportion) to about 300. The 
true: tpethod, therefore, of forming th* 
valuation of Connecticut in 1770, ie f 
not by calculating upon its ftate fc| 
1680, but by eftimating the number of 
its acres, appreciating them by purchafcs 
then made, and adding a due allo^r 
ance for the ftoek, &c. Now, Con? 
ne&icm has been reputed to cqntaiii 
?,$oo^>oq folid aeres, which, at the very 
moderate price of 8A each, are wortfy 
20,oqo,ooq/. Aerl.and 14*000,000/. being 
added as a reafonable allowance for ftock, 
fhipping, &c. the whole valuation of Con* 
ne&icut would amount Jo 34,000,000/, 
•—The annual income, fuppofing the 
£,500,600 acres and flock rented at ios f 

T z f*t 


per acre, one with another, would be 

A lift of rateables, tailed the General 
Lift, is the foundation upon which the re- 
venue is raifed in Connecticut, being the 
valuation of a man's property by the year. 
It is formed in the following manner : 
One acre of land, per ann. oL ios. od. 
One houfe 

One horfe 

One ox — • 

One fwine 

One cow — - ~ 
One two-year-old heifer 
One yearling ditto — 
One poll or male, between! 

16 and 60 years 
One lawyer for his faculty 
One veflel of one hundred tons 10 













£- 6 5 10 o 
Every perfon annually gives in his lift, 


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fpecifying the property he poflefTes, to 
the feledtmen, who fend the fum-total of 
each town to the General Aflembly, 
when a tax of one (hilling, more or lefs, 
according to public exigencies, is impofed 
on each pound. 

According to the general lift of the co* 
lony for 1770, I have under-rated its an- 
nual worth, which then was fixed at 
2,000,000/. for, though that lift includes 
the poll-tax of 18/. per head for all 
males above 16 and under 60 years of 
age, the faculty tax, and the tax on 
(hipping, all which may amount to 
600,000/. there neverthelefs remains a 
furplus of 150,000/. above my calcula- 
tion. But fuppofing a tax of one fhil- 
ling in the pound (the common colonial 
affeffment) on 1,250,000/. the produce 
will be 62,500/, exclufive of the poll, fa- 
culty, and other taxes. Small, however, 
as this afleflfment is, it has never been 
collected without much difficulty and 
clamour; yet the people lofe, by trading 

T 3 with 

m Ml STORY Of 

faith Boftop, New- York, and Newport itf 
Exports and imports, 6qo,ooo/. annually—* 
and thatfbr nothing, but to oblige the traders 
of thole towns, and difoblige ope another 
The annual expenditure of the colony 

is as follows : t 

Salary of the Governor ^.300 

•— — Lieutenant-Governor — 150 

^ Trcafurer — 150 

Secretary — — 150 

-*r~m The 12 Affiftants in Coqneil 1 ^ 

with tl^c Governor 3 

-+* 146 Reprefentatives — ^ 250Q 

— 300 Minifters, 100/. each 30000 

Aliowancefor contingencies 28450 

w-.— — . 

. , Total 62500 

The above-mentioned lift of the colony* 
including the poll-tax,. &c. would afford 
$2,500/. more for contingencies ! 

Religion and Government. — Pro* 
perly fpeaking* the Connedlicutenfians 
have neither, nor ever had ) but, in pre- 
tence; they excel whole world, ex- 

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the names of the multifarious religious 
fe£ls among them, it might afford the 
reader a pleafant idea of the prolific in- 
vention of mankind. I fhall mentiort a 
few of the moft confiderable $ fpecifying 
the number of their congregations. 

Epifcopalians — 73 
Scotch prefby terian 1 
Sandemanian — — 3 
Ditto baftard — t 
Lutherans — 1 

Baptifts 6 

Seveii-day ditto — - 1 
Quakers 4 
Davifoniaris — 1 

Separatifts 40 

Rogereens — % 

Bowlifts ■ 1 

Old Lights 80 

New Lights • 87 


T4 An 


An account of feme of thefe fedls 
is to be found in the Hiftory of Mun- 
fter ; but the Bowlifts, Separatifts, arid 
Davifonians, are peculiar to the co- 
lony. The firft allow of neither fing- 
ing not prayer i the fecond permit only 
the Elefl: td prays and the third teach 
univerfal falvation, and deny the exift- 
ence of an hell or devils. The pref- 
byterians and episcopalians arc held by all 
to be the enemies of Zion, and the Ame- 
rican vine ; nay, the former are even 
tvorfe hated than the churchmen* becaufc 
they appear to be diflenters, and are not 
genuine enemies to epifedpacy, but " hold 
the truth in unrighteoufnefs." Some tra- 
vellers have called the fanatical fedts of 
Conne&icut by the general name of Le- 
gionifts, becaufe they are many j and 
others have called them Pumguntums, 
Cantums, &c. becaule they groan and 
fing with a melancholy voice their prayety 
fermons, and hymns. This difgufting 


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tofte has utterly excluded oratory from 
them ; and, did they not fpeak the Eng- 
lift language in greater perfeftion than 
any other of the Americans, few (hangers 
would difoblige them with their com- 
pany* Their various fyftems are founded 
upon thofe of Peters, Hooker, and 
Davenport, of which I have already 
fpoken ; yet the modern teachers have 
made fo many new-fangled refinements in 
the do&rine and difcipline of thofe patri- 
archs, and of one another, as render 
their paffion for ecclefiaftical innovation 
and tyranny equally confpicuous.— But 
the whole are enveloped with fuper- 
ftition, which here pafles for religion, as 
much as it does in Spain, France, or 
among the favages, I will inftanee that 
of an infant in 176 I. Some children 
were piling fand-heaps in Hertford, when 
a boy, only four years old, hearing it 
thunder at a diftance, left his companions 
and ran home to his mother, crying out, 

M Mother 1 



" Mother ! mother ! give me my book, 
" for I heard God fpeaking to ine»" His 
mother gave him his book, and he read 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, &c. then gave up 
his bdok, faying, « Here, mother, take 
•« my book j I mtift go to my fand- 
«• houfes ; now I am not afraid of all the 
41 thunder and lightning in the Wtfrid." 

As to their government, we may com- 
pare it to the regularity of a mad mob 
in London, with this exception, the itaob- 
a&s Without law, and the colomfts by 
law. They teach that legal righteoufneffr 
is not faving grace. Herein they are 
right; but it appears they believe not 
their own dodtrine : for legal rlghteouf- 
nefs is their only Jhield afid buckler. 
In January county court, at Hertford only, 
i ( 768, there were above 3000 fuits on the 
docket) and there are four of thofe Court* 
in a year, and perhaps never lefs fuits at a 
court than 2000. 

In the courfe of thifr work, my readert 



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mtlft neceffarily have obferved, in fome 
degree, the ill effcdls of the dettiocraticat 
conftitution of Connecticut* I would 
Wifh them to imagine, for I feel myfelf 
unable adequately to defcribe, the con- 
fufion, turbulence, and convulfion, arifing 
in a province, where not .only every civil 
officer, from the Governor to the confta- 
ble, but alfo every minifler, is appointed as. 
well as paid by the people, and fadion and 
fuperftition are eftablifhed. The clergy* 
lawyers, and merchants or traders, are 
the three efficient parties which guide the 
helm of government. Of thefe the moft 
powerful is the clergy j and, when no 
combinations are formed againft them, 
they may be faid to rule the whole pro- 
vince ; for they lead the women captive, 
and the women the men | but when the 
clergy differ with the lawyers and mer- 
chants* the popular tide turns* In lika 
manner, when the clergy and lawyers con- 
tend with the merchants, it turns againft 

thefe j 


thefe ; and it is the fame, when the 
clergy and merchants unite againft the 
lawyers. This fluctuation of power gives 
a ftrange appearance to the body politic 
at large* In Hertford, perhaps, the clergy 
and merchants are agreed and prevail ; in 
Weathersfield, the clergy and lawyers; 
in Middletown, the lawyers and mer- 
chants ; and fo on, again and again, 
thoughout the colony. Thus the Ge- 
neral Aflembly becomes an aflembly of 
Contending fa&ions, whofe different in- 
terefts and purfuits it is generally found 
neceffary mutually to confult, in order 
to produce a fufficient coalition to pro- 
ceed on the bufinefs of the flate. ■ 
Vojipfos, pfeudo-patres patrice, veluti in Jpe- 

cuto y ajpicite! Sometimes, in quarrels 

tween the merchants and lawyers of a 
particular parifh, the minifter is allowed 
to ftand neuter j but, for the moft part, he 
h obliged to declare on one fide or the 
Other : he then, remembering whence he 


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gets his bread, efpoufes that which appears 
to be the ftrongeft, whether it be right or 
wrong, and his declaration never fails to 
ruin the adverfe party. En rabies vulgi f 
—I muft beg leave to refer my readers to 
their own refle&ions upon fuch a fyftem 
of government as I have here fketched 

The hiftorians of New-England boaft 
much -of the happinefs all parties there 
enjoy in not being fubjea:, as in England, 
to any facramental teft by way of qua- 
lification for preferment in the ftatej 
on which account, with peculiar pro- 
priety, it might be called a free coun- 
try. The truth is, there never has been 
occafion for fuch a teft-adt. The af- 
femblies never appointed any, becaufe the 
wagiftrates are annually chofen by the 
people, of whom the far greater part arc 
church-members ; and this church-mem- 
berfhip, in its confluences, deftroys 
fill liberty in g swpmupicant, who i$ 




t I * ■ * ■ • 

nece floated to fwear to promote the in* 
tereft of that church he is a member of, 
and is duly informed by the miniftcr what 
that intereft is. The minifter is ^the eye 
of conscience to all freemen ip his parish j 
and tells them, that they will perjure 
themfelves, if they give their votes to an 
epifcopalian, or to any perfon who is not 
a member of the church of the Sober Dif> 
/enters. Thofe freemen dare not go 
counter to the minifter 's di&ate, any more 
than a true Muflulrnan dare viofate the 
mod facred law of Mahomet. What 
need, then, is there of a civil teft, 
when a religious teft operates much 
more powerfully, and will ever keep all 
churchmen, feparatifts, quakers, baptifts, 
and other denominations, from govern- 
mental employments in Connecticut, 
and confine them all to the Old and 
New Lights ; whilft the tcflyadt in Fng> 
land prevents no diflenter from holding 

any civil or military commiffion what- 


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foever. Upon thi$ fubjedt Mr. Neal 

has exerted himfclf in fo fignal a man- 
ner, that he ought to be ftyled the 
Champion of New- England. He repre- 
fents, that there were two ftate fa&ions 
in New-England : the one out of place 
he c^lls fpies, and malcontents, chiefly 
becaufe they had no (hare in the govern- 
jnent. He adds, p. 615, " I can aflure the 
< c world, that religion is no part of the 
1 c quarrel j for there is no facramental 
" teft for preferments in the ftate."— 
Many people in New-England have not 
been able to aifign a reafon for Mr. Neal's 
chufing to hide one truth by telling ano- 
ther, viz. that there was no ftatute in New* 
England to oblige a man to receive the 
facrament among the Sober Diffenters, 
as a qualification for civil employment. 
This aflertion is really true ; and when 
Mr. Neal fpeaks a truth, he above all 
men ought to have credit for it. But Mr. 
Neal well knew it to be truth alfo, that 




no man could be chofen a corporal in the 
train-band, unlcfs he was a member of 
the church of the Sober Diffenters, be- 
caufe then every voter was fubjedfc to a reli- 
gious teft of the fynod or confociation, 
Mr. Neal, indeed, feems to think that a 


civil teft is herefy itielf j but that a reli- 
gious teft is liberty, is gofpel, and renders 
u all parties of chriftians in New-England 
u eafy, a happy people !" The reafon, 
however, of his muffling truth with truth, 
was, he wrote for the Old Lights, and 
againft the New Lights, for hire j the New 
Lights being the minority, and out of 
place in the ftate. Thofe two feds dif- 
fered about the coercive power of the 
civil magiftrate. The Old Lights held that 
the civil magiltrate was a creature framed 
on purpofe tofupport ecclefiaftical cenfure* 
with the fword of feverity ; but the New 
Lights maintained, that the magiftrate 
had no power or right to concern himfelf 
whh church excommunication, and that 


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excommunication was all the punifhment 
any-one could undergo in this world ac- 
cording to the rules of the gofpel. Thefe 
were and always have been two great 
articles of faith in New-England ; never* 
thelefs, Mr. Neal fays, he can allure the 
world, that " religion is no part of the 
quarrel !" I hope Mr. Neal did not mean 
to quibble, as the New-Englanders gene- 
rally do, by a jefuitifm, viz, that religion 
is peaceable and admits not of quarrels j 
and yet, if he did not* he meant not a full 
representation of the matter : for he well 
knew that the difference in refpedl to the 
intent and power of magiftrates was a reli- 
gious point, and formed the partition- wall 
between the Old and New Light?. The 
civilians or magiftrates were too wife to 
countenance the New-Lights, who pro* 
mifed little good to them* while the 
Old-Lights gave them a power of punifh- 
ing, even with death, thofe whom they 
had anathematized, and who would no{ 

U About 


fubmit to their cenfures by penitence and 
confeflion. The Old-Lights, in fhort, 
fupported the pra&ice of the inquifitors of 
Spain, and Archbifhop Laud j the often- 
fible occafion of their anceftors flying 
from. England to the wildernefs of Ame- 

But Mr. Neal contented not himfclf 
with one miftake : he added, " that the 
€i people of New- England are a dutiful 
€t and loyal people." They never merited 
this character, and they always had too 
much honefty and religion to claim it. 
From the firft they have uniformly de- 
clared, in church and ftate, that America 
is a new world, fubjedt to the people re- 
fiding in it ; and that none but enemies 
to the country would appeal from their 
courts to the King in Council. They 
never have prayed for any earthly king 


by name. They have always called them- 
felves republicans and enemies to kingly 
government, to temporal and fpiritual 


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fords. They hate the idea of a parliament,, 
conlifting of King, Lords, and Commons : 
they declare, that the three branches 
fhould be but one, the King having only 
a fingle vote with the other members. 
Upon this point they have always quar- 
relled with all governors. They never 
have admitted one law of England to be in 
force among them, till palled by their af- 
femblies. They have fent agents to fight 
againft the Kings of England. They 
deny the jurifdiction of the Bifliop of 
London, which extends over America 
by virtue of a royal patent They hold 
jkfus to be their only King, whom if they 
love and obey, they will not fubmit, be- 
caufe they have not fubmitted, to the laws 
of the King of Great- Britain. 

Mr. Neal, furthermore, profefles his 
want of conception why the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gofpel in Foreign 
Parts (hould fend Miffionaries into New- 
England, when Oliver Cromwell had, in 

U 2 1649, 


1649, inftituted a Society to propagate 
Chriftian Knowledge there. Mr. Neal 
might have learnt the caufe of this phe- 
nomenon from the charter granted to the 
firft-mentioned Society by King Wil- 
liam HI. who was a friend to civil and 
chriftian liberty, and who endeavoured to 
fupprefs the intolerable perfecutions in his 
days prevailing in New-England. But, 
beiides, Mr. Neal could not but know 
that there were many churchmen in New- 
England defirous of the ufe of the liturgy 
and difcipline of the Englifli church ; and 
for what reafon Ihould not they have mi- 
nifters of their own perfuafion, as well as 
the fober and confcientious diflenters ? I 
hope my readers will not think me a par- 
tial advocate for the church of England, 
which, perhaps, has loft the opportunity 
of civilizing, chriftianizing, and modera- 
ting the burning zeal of the diflenters 
in New-England who were honeft in 
their religion, merely by the finful omif- 


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fion of not fending a bifhop to that coun- 
try, who would have effedted greater 
things among them than an army of 
50,000 men. — I avow myfclf to be liberal- 
minded towards all feds and parties ; and, 
if I had power, I would convert all forts 
of minifters into popes, cardinals, prelates, 
dominis, potent prefbyters, and rich qua- 
kers, that the world might be excufed 
from hearing again of preaching, defa- 
mation, infurredions, and fpiritual jurif- 
didlions, which refult more from po- 
verty, pride, avarice, and ambition, than 
the love of peace and chriftianity. It 
has been faid by the deifts and other po- 
liticians, that minifters, by preaching, 
have done more hurt than good in the 
chriftian world. If the idea will hold in 
any part, it will in New-England, where 
each feft preaches, for Gofpel, policy and 
defamation of its neighbour ; whence the 
lower claffes think, that chriftianity con- 
fifts in defending their own peculiar church 

U 3 and 




and modes, and fubverting thofe of others, 
at any rate ; while the higher ranks value 
religion and the Gofpsl as laws of a foreign 
country, and the clergy as merchants or 
pawwawers, fubtle, cruel, and greedy of 
riches and dominion over all people. For 
this reafon, the favages have taken an 
averfion to the protcftant religion, and fay 
they had rather follow Hobbamockow, 
and the Roman priefts, than New- Eng- 
land chriftians, who perfecute one ano- 
ther, and killed their anceftors with a 
focky Gofpel. With fcorn they cry out, 
" We value not your Gofpel, which mews 
*' fo many roads to Kicktang : fome of 
" them muft be crooked, and lead to 
<« Hobbamockow. We had, therefore, 
" better continue Indians, like our ancef- 
♦« tors ; or be catholicks, who tell us of 
«< only one way to Kicktang, or the io« 
" vilible God.'' 

Laws. - A flranger in the colony, upon 


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hearing the inhabitants talk of religion, 
liberty, and juftice, would be induced to 
believe that the chriftian and civil virtues 
were their diftinguifhing chara&eriftics ; 
but he foon finds his miftake on fixing 
his abode among them. Their laws grind 
the poor, and their religion is to opprefs 
the opprefled. The poll-tax is unjuft 
and cruel. The poor man is compelled 
to pay for his head 18 s, per ann. work 
four days on the highways, ferve in the 
militia four days, and pay three (hillings 


for his hut without a window in it. The 
beft houfe and richeft man in the colony 
pays no more ! 

The law is pretended to exempt epifco- 
palians, anabaptifts, quakers, and others, 
from paying rates to the Sober Di/Jenters; 
but, at the fame time, gives the Sober 
Dijj'enters power to tax them for minifter, 
Ichool, and town-rates, by a general vote; 
and no law or court can put cjunder ivbat 
the town has joi?ied together.- -The law 

U ^. alio 



fllfo exempts from paying to Sober t)if> 
/enters all churchmen, who live Jo near as 
they can and do attend the church. But, 
hence* if a man is fick, and does cot attend 
more than 26 Sabbaths in a year, he be- 
comes legally a Sober Dijfenter y and, if 
the meeting lies hetween him and the 
church, he does not live fo near the church 
tis he can attend, becaufe is it more than a 
Sabbath - day's journey, and unnecejar) 

The law prefcribes whipping. Hocks, 
and fines, for fuch as do not attend 
public worfhip on the Sabbath. The 
grand jury complains, and the juftice in- 
flidb the punifhment. This has been 
the praftice many years. About J75°* 
Mr. Pitt, a churchman, was whipped, 
for not attending meeting, Mr. Pitt was 
an old man. The epifcopal clergy wrote 
to England, complaining of this cruel 
law. The Governor and Council imme- 
diately broke the iuftice who punilhed 


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Mr, Pitt, and wrote to the BUhap of 
London that they, had done fo, as a mark 
of their difapprobatioa of the juftice's con- 
duffi:, and knew not what more they 
could do. This apology fatisfied the Bi- 
(hop; anti the next year the fame Governor 
and Council reftored the juftice to his of- 
fice : however, quake rs and anabaptifts 
only were whipped afterward*. 

Formerly, when a Sober Dijfenter had 
a ftiit in law againft a churchman, every 
juryman of the latter perfuafion was by 
the court removed from the jury, and re- 
placed by Sober Dijfenters. The reafon 
affigned for this extraordinary condudt 
was, 4< that juftice and impartiality might 
take place." The epifcopalians, quakers, 
and other fedts, not of the Sober Dif- 
fenters> were not admitted to ferve as 
jurymen in Connecticut till about 1750. 
Such of them, whbfe annual worth is 
rated at not lefs than forty pounds in the 
general lift, haye enjoyed the liberty of 



voting for civil officers a much longer 
term ; but from parifh-concerns they are 
all (till totally excluded. 

Other laws I have occafionally animad- 
verted upon in the courfe of this work > 
and a fpecimen of the Blue Laws is in- 
ferted p. 63. — the various courts 8o, 81. 

Nothing can refledt greater difgrace 
upon the colony than the number of fuits 
in all the county courts, amounting in 
the whole to between 20 and 30,000 
annually the greateft part of which 
are vexatioufly commenced from expecta- 
tions grounded upon the notorious in- 
ftability of the judges opinions and deci- 

This fpirit of litigation, which diftra&s 
the province in general, is, however, a 
bleffing to the judges and lawyers. The 
court has one (hilling for every a&ion 
called, and twenty (hillings for thofe that 
Come to trial ; and the fee to each lawyer 
is twenty (hillings, whether the aftion 



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be tried or not : befides various other ex- 
pences. There are near as many fuits of 
confcience before the juftices of peace, 
and minifters, and deacons j fo that the 
&m annually expended in Jaw in the 
whole colony is amazing. It was not 
without reafon, therefore, that the judges, 
the lawyers, the minifters, and deacons, 
the fheriffs, and conftables, oppofed the 
flamp-a6t with all their might. They told 
the people, that, if this aft took place, their 
Jiberties would be deftroyed, and they 
would be tried by King's judges without 
a jury. 

The Angular nature of fome of the fuits 
entitle .them to particular notice. When 
the ice and floods prevail in the great river 
Connecticut, they frequently cut off large 
pieces of ground on one fide, and carry 
them over to the oppolite. By this means, 
the river is every year changing its bed, 
to the advantage of fome perfons, and 
fhe diladvantage of others. This has 



proved the fource of perplexing Iaw-fuits, 
and will moft likely continue to produce 
the fame efFedts fo long as the demiannual 
affemblies remain in the colony 5 for the 
judgment of the Aflembly in May is 
refcinded by that in Odtober, and fo vice 
verfa. Thus a law-fuit in Conne&icut 
is endlefs, to the ruin of both plaintiff 
and defendant. The county and the fu* 
perior courts, alfo, in different years, give 
different judgments; and the reafon k 
the popular conftitution of the colony, 
whereby different parties prevail at diffe- 
rent times, each of whom carefully un- 
does what the others have done. Thus 
the glorious uncertainty of law renders 
the poffeflion of property in Ccnnedti- 
cut extremely precarious. The queAion, 
however, touching the lands removed 
from place to place by the floods and ice, 
requires the fkill of both jurifts and ca- 
luifls. The moft fimple cafe of the kind 
that has been communicated to me, is 


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the following : A piece of land belong- 
ing to A. in Springfield, with a houfe, 
&c. (landing upon it, was removed by 
the flood to another town, and fettled on 


land belonging to W. A. claimed his 
houfe and land, and took pofleflion of 
them 5 whereupon W. fued A. for a 
trefpafs, and the court ejefted A, But 
A. afterwards obtained a reverfion of the 
judgment ; when W. again fued A. and 
got a decree that A. (hould remove his 
own land off from the land of W. or pay 
W. for bis land. Further litigation en- 
fued, and both parties pleaded that the 
adt of God injured no man according to 
the Englifh law. The judges faid, the 
adl of God in this cafe equally fell upon 
A. and W. The difpute refts in Jiatu quo, 
the jurifprudence of Connedticut not ha- 
ving yet taught mankind what is juft and 
legal in this important controverfy. 

Suppofing the flood had carried A/s 
(hip or raft on W/s land, the fliip or raft 

^ — would 

3 a2 History of 

would ftill belong to A. and W. cOuld 
recover no damage ; but then A. muft 
take away his (hip or faft in a reafonable 
time. Yet in the cafe where an ifland 
or point of land 19 removed by the waters, 
or an earthquake, upon a neighbouring 
(hore, ^ Ought not the iflanders to keep 
poffeflion of the fuperficies This may 
be a new cafe in Europe. 

Manners and Customs. — Gravity 
and a ferious deportment, together with 
fliynefs and baflifulnefs, generally attend 
the firft communications with the inhabi- 
tants of Connecticut; but, after a fhorC 
acquaintance, they become very familiar 
and inquifitive about news, — Who are 
you, whence come you, where going* 
what is your bufinefs, and what your 
religion? They do not confider thefe 
and fimilar queftions as impertinent, and 
confequently expedt a civil anfwer. When 
the ftranger has fatisfied their curiofity, 


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they will treat him with all the hofpita- 
lity in their power, and great caution 
mull be obferved to get quit of them and 
their houfes without giving them offence. 
If the ftranger has crofs and difficult roads 
to travel, they will go with him till all 
danger is part, without fee or reward. 
The ftranger has nothing to do but civilly 
to fay, <c Sir, I thank you, and will call 
<c upon you when I return." He muft 
not fay, 44 God blefs you, I (hall be glad 
44 to fee you at my houfe," unlefs he is 
a minifter; becaufe they hold, that the 
words " God blefs you" (hould not be 
fpoken by common people ; and c< I fhali 
44 be glad to fee you at my houfe" they 
look upon as an infincere compliment 
paid them for what they do out of duty to 
the ftranger. Their hofpitality is highly 
exemplary ; they are fincere in it, and 
reap great pleafure by refledting that 
perhaps they have entertained angels. 
The Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, in one 




of bi6 fermons, gave tfoem the following 
chara&er : 4C I have found," faid he, 
" the people of Connecticut the wifeft of 
« any upon the continent— they are the 
41 beft friends and the word enemies— 
#c they are hair-brained bigots on alt fides 
' §( —and they may be compared to the 
" horfe and mule without bit and bridle. 
*' In other colonies I have paid for my 
€t food and lodging ; but could never 
u fpend one penny in fruitful Conne&l* 
€i cut, whofe banks flow with milk and 
44 honey, and whole fons and daughters 
u never fail to feed and refrefh the weary 
u traveller without money and without 
«« pricey 

On Saturday evenings the people look 
four and fad : on the Sabbath, they ap- 
pear to have loft their deareft friends, 
are almoft fpeechlefs, and walk foftlyj 
they even obferve it with more exa&nefs 
than ever did the Jews. A quaker preacher 
told them, with much truth, that they 


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IPsror/hipped the Sabbath, and not the God 
pf the Sabbath. Thofe hofpitable people 
Without charity condemned the quakef 
3$ a blafphemer of the holy Sabbath, fined^ 
tarred and feathered him, put a rope 
about his neck, and plunged him into the 
fez ; but he efcaped with life, though 
he was above 70 years of age. In 1750, 
&n epifcopal clergyman, born and educated 
in England, who had been in holy orders 
^bove 20 years, once broke their fabbatjeal 
law, by combing a difcompofed lock of 
hair on the top of his wig ; $t another 
time, by making a humming noife, whicfy 
they called a whittling $ at a third time, by 
walking too faft from church $ at a fourth. 
by running into church when it- rained; 
at a fifth, by walking in his garden, and 
picking a bunch of grapes : for whicfy 
feveral crimes he was complained pf by 
the grand Jury, had warrants granted 
jagainft him, was feized, brought to trial, 
#ad paid a confiderable fum pf money. 

X At 


At laft, overwhelmed with perfecution 
and vexation, he cried out, " No Briton, 
u nay no Jew, fhould affume any public 
t( charafter in Connedticut, till he has 
" ferved an apprenticefhip of ten years 
" in it ; for I have been here feven years, 
€ and ftri&ly obferved the Jewifti law 
<c concerning the Sabbath, yet find my- 
€i felf remits in refpedt to the perfeft law 
« of liberty /" 

The people are extremely fond of 
ft rangers paffing through the colony, but 
very averfe to foreigners fettling among 
them; which few have done without 
ruin to their characters and fortunes by 
detradion and law-fuits, unlefs recom- 
mended as men of grace by fome known 
and revered republican proteftant in Eu- 
rope. The following ftory may be amu- 
ling:— An Englifli gentleman, during 
a fhort refidence in a certain town, had 
the good luck to receive fome civili- 
ties from the Deacon, Minifler, and Jufr 



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lice. The Deacon had a daughter, 
without beauty, but fenfible and rich. 
The Briton (for that was the name he 
went by), having received a prefent from 
the Weft Indies, of fome pine- apples and 
fweetmeats, fent his fervant with part of 
it to the Deacon's daughter, to whom, 
at the fame time, he addreffed a compli- 
mentary note, begging Mifs would accept 
the pine-apples and fweetmeats, and 
wifliing he might be able to make her a 
better prefent. Mifs, on reading the note, 
was greatly alarmed, and exclaimed, " Ma- 
" ma ! Mama ! Mr. Briton has fent me g, 
" love-letter." The mother read the note, 
and (hewed it to the Deacon and, after 
due confideration, both agreed in pro-? 
nouncing it a love-letter. The lawyer, 
juftice, and parfon, were then fent for, 
who in council weighed every word in 
the note, together with the golden temp- 
tation which the lady poffeffed, and were 
pf opinion that the writer was in love ? 

3 o8 HISTORY Or 

and that the note was a love-letter, but 
worded fo carefully that the law could 
not punifh Briton for attempting to court 
Mifs without obtaining htr parents con* 
fent. The parfon wrung his hands, 
rolled up his eyes, (hrugged up his i 
fhoulders, groaned out his hypocritical 
grief, and faid, " Deacon, I hope you do 
4t not blame me for having been the inno- 
u cent caufe of your knowing this impru* 
u dent and haughty Briton, There is fome- 
u thing very odd in all the Britons $ but 
4 * I thought this man had fbme prudence 
€i and modefty : however, Deacon," put- 
ting his hand on his *breaft, and -bowing 
ing with a pale, deceitful face, " I (hall 
41 in future (hun all the Britons, for they 
u are all flxange creatures." The law- 
yer and juftice made their apologies, and 
were forry that Briton did not cohfider 
the quality of the Deacon's daughter be* 
fore he wrote his letter. Mifs, all ap- 
prehenfion and tears, at finding no puuijh- 


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tnent could reach Briton in the courfe of 
law, cried out to htr couniellors, " Who 
« is Briton ? Am I not the Deacon's 
daughter ? What have I done that he 
" (hould take fuch liberties with me? 
" Is he not the natural fon of fomc 
« prieft or foundling ? Ought he not to 
«< be expofed for his aflurance to the 
44 Deacon's daughter ?" -Her words took 
effctt. The council voted that they would 
(hew their contempt of Briton by neglcdt- 
ing him for the time to come. On his re- 
turn home, the parfon, after many andgreat 
figns of furprize, informed his wife of the 
awful event which had happened by the 
imprudence of Briton* She foon com- 
municated the fecret to her fitter goffips, 
prudently cautioning tbem not to report it 
as from her. But, not content with that, 
the parfon himfelf went among all his 
acquaintance, (halting his head, and fay- 
ing, " O, Sirs 1 have you heard of the 

'* ftrange conduit of friend Briton ?--how 

X3 "hs 


" he wrote a love- letter, and fent it with 
€t fome pine-apples to the Deacon's daugh- 
" ter ? My wife ahd I had a great friend* 
"fhip for Briton, but cannot fee him 
fl any more." Thus the afflicted parfon 
told this important tale to every one ex* 
cept Briton, who, from his ignorance of 
the ftory, conducted himfelf in his ufual 
manner towards his fuppofed friends; 
though he obferved they had a (how of 
hafte arid bufinefs whenever he met with 
any of thenl. Happily for Briton, he 
depended not on the Deacon, Minifter, 
or Colony, for his fupport* At laft, a 
Scotchman heard of the evil tale, and 
generoufly told Briton of it, adding that 
the parfon was fuppofed to be in a deep 
decline merely from grief and the fa- 
tigue he had endured in fpreading it, 
Briton thanked the Scotchman, and called 
on the friendly parfon to know the parti- 
culars of his offencei The parfon, with 
f?ghs > bows, and folemn fmir kings, an- 


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fwered, €C Sir, the fa£t is, you wrote a 
" love-letter to the Deacon's daughter 
<c without afk ing her parents confent, 
" which has given great offence to that 
" lady, and to all her acquaintance, of 
" whom I and my wife have the honour 
u to be reckoned a part/' Briton kept 
his temper. « So then," faid he, " I 
u have offended you by my infolent note 
" to the Deacon's daughter ! I hope my 
u fin is venial. Pray, Sir, have you feen 
" my note?' 1 "Yes," replied the parfon, 
ct to my grief and forrow : I could not 
u have thought you fo imprudent, had I 
" not feen and found the note to be your 
<c own writing." " How long have you 
<c known of this offence ?" <c Somemonths." 
<c Why, Sir, did you not feafonably ad- 
" monifh me for this crime ?" " I was 
" fo hurt and grieved, and my friend fhip 
" fo great, I could not bear to tell you." 
Mr. Briton then told the parfon, that his 
friendfhip was fo fine and fubtle, it was 

X 4 invifibk 


Invifible to an Englifli eye ; and that 
Gofpel minifters in England did hot prove 
their friendlhip by telling calumnious 
ftories to every body but the perfon con- 
cerned. " But, I fuppofe," added he, 
f< this is genuine New-England friend* 
u (hip, and merits thanks more than a 
" fupple-jack I M The parfon* with a 
leering look, fneaked away towards his 
ivife ; and Briton left the colony without 
anjr civil or ecclefiaftical punifliment, tell- 
ing the Scotchman that the Deacon's 
daughter had money, and the parfon faith 
without eyes, or he fhould never have 
been accufed of making love id one 
who was naturally fo great an enemy to 

Cupid. Of fuch or worfe fort being 

the reception foreign fettlers may expedt 
From the inhabitants of Connecticut, it is 
tid wonder that few or none chufe id 
Venture afaiohg them* 

The ciiftom of fettling and difmilfihg 
i foter 'dijjenting hiinifter is very fingii- 

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lar. All the parifhioners meet, and vote 
to apply to the affociation for a candidate} 
and one is accordingly fent. If he pleafes, 
the people vote to give him a call i if he 
accepts the call, the a&ual communicants^ 
and they alone, make the covenant be* 
tween him and them as Chrift's church, 
and thus they are married to him. Aftef 
the candidate is ordained, others * by ac* 
knowledging and fwearing to fupport thd 
covenant, become married to him alfo* 
[N. B. Baptifm isnotfufficient to take them 
out of their natural ftate.] The call is an 
invitation from the parifhioners to the 
candidate to take upon him the minifterial 
office of their church, on condition that he 
be allowed 300/. or 400/. fettlement, 
and, perhaps, 100/. falary, befides wood* 
&c. &c. during his refidence among them 
in that capacity. The candidate, afteif 
looking round him, and finding no betted 
terms offered from any other parifh* 
anfwers in this manner; « Brethren 

<f and 


" and friends, I have confidered of youf 
u call ; and, after many fallings and 
" prayers, I find it to be the call of God, 
« and clofe with your offer." The 
church then appoints a day for his ordi- 
nation, and the minifters who (hall affift 
in the ceremony, which is as follows: 

1. The meeting is opened with an hymn : 

2, fome-one makes a prayer : 3, another 
hymn fucceeds : 4. a fermon : 5. ano- 
ther prayer ; 6. the covenant is read : 7. 
the prayer of confecration, with impofi- 
tion of hands by the minifters: 8. the 
right hand of fellowfliip, which conveys 
that half of minifterial power which I have 
already fpoken of as communicated by 
the churches (p.143) : 9. the charge; that 
is, to behave well in the office whereto 
God has called him : 10. a prayer: if. 
another hymn : 12. the young minifter 
difmiffes with his benediaion. Numerous 
as the ceremonies are in a minifter's or- 
dination, there are but few judged ne- 


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Geffary in difmiffing him — a majority 
of the church is enough to turn the mi- 
nifter from bed and board, or, in their 
language, u to divorce him;" — which 
happens more frequently than is decent. 
The minifter has no remedy but in ap- 
pealing to the aflbciation, which ftep enti- 
tles him to his falary till difmiffed by 
that powerful body. Incontinency, in- 
temperance, lying, and idlenefs, are the 
common accufations brought againft the 
minifter, but feldom founded in truth, 
and yet always proved by knights of the 
poft. However, the minifter carries off 
his fettlement, in cafe he is difmiffed for 
immoralities, but not if he turns church- 
man 5 then his old parifhioners are mean 
enough to fue for the fettlement. A re- 
cent inftance of this kind happened at 
New- London, where the minifter, Doc- 
tor Macher Byles, defired a difmiffion, 
which was given him ; but, finding the 

Do&or's defign was to become a church- 


riiin y the people demanded the fettlement 
given him twelve years before. The 
Do&or, with a fpirit worthy of himfelf 
and his venerable anceftors returned the 
money with, " You are welcome to it, 
«' lince it proves to the world that you 
<c could not accufe me of any thing 
" more agreeable to ungenerous minds." 

The manner of vifiting the lick in this 
province is more terrible than charitable. 
The minifter demands of the fick if he 
be converted, when, and where i If the 
anfwers are conformable to the fyftem of 
the minifter, it is very well ; if not, the 
lick is given over as a non-eledl, and no 
objedt of prayer. Another minifter is 
then fent for, who aflcs if the fick be 
willing to die — if he hates God — if he 
be willing to be damned, if it pleafe God 
to damn him ? Should he anfwer No, this 
minifter quits him as did the former. 
Finally* the fick man dies, and fo falls out 
of their hands into better. 


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Amidft all the darknefs of fuperftitioij 
that furrounds the (late, the humanity it 
(hews to poor ftrangers feized with fick- 
nefb in the colony, or to luch perfons as 
are (hipwrecked upon its coafts, fhines 
with diftinguilhcd luftre. Thcfp unfor- 
tunate fufferers are immediately provided 
with ntceffarics of every kind by order of 
the feledtmen, whofe espences are reim- 
burfed out of the colony treafury. 

Thus is laudably employed a part of 
the money allowed for contingencies (fee 
p. 278); but another part is confumed 
in a very different manner, It frequently 
happens, that whenever the Epifcopalians 
becorpe fp numerous in a pariih, as to 
gain the afcendency over the Sober Dif- 
Jjenters, and the latter cannot, by their own 
ftrength, either deftroy the epifcopal, 
.or fupport their own church, the Go- 
vernor and Council, with the advice of 
the Confociation, kindly relieve them 

with an annual grant, out of the public 



treafury, fometimes to the amount of the 
whole fum paid into it by every denomi- 
nation in the parifh. An ad: of charity of 
this kind lately took place at Chelfea, in 
Norwich, where the Sober Dijfenters were 
few and poor, and without a meeting-houfe 
or minifter j fo that they were obliged to 
walk a mile to a meeting, or go to 
church. The young people chofe the 
latter, which alarmed the Sober Dijfenters 
to fuch a degree, that they applied for and 
obtained from the generous Governor and 
his virtuous Council 300/. per annum out 
of the public treafury, befides the duties 
on the veflels of churchmen at that port. 
This largition enabled them to build a 
meeting and fettle a minifter. When the 
churchmen complained of this abufe of 
public money, the Governor anfwered, 
« c The AfTembly has the fame right to 
« fupport chriftianity, as the Society for 
« the Propagation of the Goipel in foreign 
* Parts, or the Parliament of Great Britain/' 


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The murmurs of the people, on the 
collection of the revenue, befpeak embez- 
zlements of another kind. It fhould 
feem that they believed the General Af- 
fembly to be in the fame predicament 
the Devil thought Job was, when he 
faid, " Doth Job ferve God for nought V y 

Eftates in Connedticut pafs from ge- 
neration to generation by gavelkind } fo 
that there are few perfons, except of the 
labouring clafs, who have not freeholds 
of their own to cultivate. A general 
mediocrity of ftation being thus confti- 
tutionally promoted, it is no wonder that 
the rich man is defpifed and the poor 
man's bleffing is his poverty. In no part 
of the world are les petit s and les grands 
fo much upon a par as here, where none 
of the people are deftitute of the conve- 
niences of life, and the fpirit of indepen- 
dence. From their infancy, their edu- 
cation as citizens points out no diftinc- 
fcioQ between licentioufnefs and liberty j 



and their religion is fo muffled with fu* 
perdition, felf-Iove, and provincial en* 
jnity, as not yet to have taught them that 
humility and refpeft for others, which 
from others they demand. Notwith- 
standing thefe effedts of the levelling 
plan, there are many exceptions to be 
found in the province of gentlemen of 
large eftates and generous principles. 

The people commonly travel on horfer 
back j and the ladies are capable of teach? 
ing their neighbours the art of horfeman* 
Ihip. There are few coaches in the co- 
lony; but many chaifes and whifkeys. 
In the winter, the fleigh is ufed ; 3. ve- 
hicle drawn by two horfes, and carrying 
fix perfons in its box, which hangs oji 
four pofts Handing on two fteel Aiders, 
or large fcates. 

Dancing, fifliing, hunting, fcating, an4 
riding in fleighs on the ice, are all th/s 
amufements allowed in the colony. 

Smuggling is riyetted in the conftitu? 

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titins and prattice of the inhabitants of 
Connecticut, as much as fuperftition and 
religion; and their province is a flore- 
houfe for the fmugglers of the neighbour- 
ing colonies. They confcientioufly ftudy 
to cheat the King of thofe duties, which, 
they fay, God and nature never intended 
fhould be paid. From the governor 
down to the tithing-man, who are fworfi 
to fupport the laws, they will aid fmug- 
lers, refift collectors, and mob informers. 
This being a popular government, all 
the officers are appointed by the free- 
holders. There are very fevere laws 
againft bribery. The candidates are not 
fuffered to give a dinner, or a glafs of 
cyder, on the day of election, to a voter. 
Indeed, bribery is tile next greateft crime 
to the breach of the Sabbath ; yet open 
bribery, eftabliflied by cuftom immenw- 
rial in Rhode- Ifland, is more praife<- 
worthy than the pra&ice of Connecticut, 
1 will give the reader fome idea of th& 

Y mode 


lnode in which an eledtion is managed ill 
Conne&icut. All the voters in a town- 
{hip convene in the town meeting-houfe. 
One of the minifters, after prayers^ 
preaches from fome fuch text as, " Jabez 
u was more honourable than all his brethren'' 
The people keep their feats, while the 
conftables take their votes in a box ; and* 
if a voter has not his vote written, the 
conftable gives him one. So Jabez is 
ele&ed ; and the meeting is concluded 
with a prayer of thanks to the Lord God 
of Ifrael for " turning the hearts of his 
u people againft the enemies of Ziofy 
" and for uniting them in Jabez, the 
*' man after his own he_art." — The man- 
ner in which the preacher treats his text* 
wiii more particularly appear from the 
animadverfion of a certain quaker on one 
t>f thefe occaiions. c< Friend," faid he 
to the pedagogue, " I do thee no wrong 
" in telling thee that thou has prayed and 
preached againft bribery, but forgot 

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u to keep thy tongue from fpeaking evil 
" againft thy neighbour. Doft thou think 
" the Lord will regard thy preaching fo 
cC much as the voters whom thou doft call 
" freemen ? If thou believeft it, thou 
" haft bribed not only the people, but 
u the Lord alfo, to rejedt Ebenezer and 
ct Benjamin/' The preacher called upon 
the conftable to take away this babbler, 
and open the meeting ; which was done, 
and Ebenezer and Benjamin were re- 
jected by the voters. 

The men, in general, throughout the 
province, are tall, ftout, and robuft. The 
greateft care is taken of the limbs and 
bodies of infants, which are kept ftrait 
by means of a board 5 a practice learnt of 
the Indian women, who abhor all crook- 
ed people : fo that deformity is here a 
rarity. Another cuftom derived from the 
Indians is, to welcome a new-born infant 
into the world with urine and honey, the 
dflfcfis of w hich are wonderful j and hence 

Y 2 it 



Jt is that at groanings there are always i 
little boy and a rattle-fnake's (kin, th£ 
latter of which prevents numbnefs and 
the cramp. The women are fair, hand- 
fom£, genteel. They have, indetd, adopted 
Various cuftoms of the Indian women; 
but cannot learn, like them, how to fup- 
port the pains of child-bearing without a 
groan. NatUralifts and furgeons have not 
been able to affign a reafon why a negrd 
woman fhould h/ive a hundred pains, a 
white woman ten, and an Indian none; 


Some have faid that the fatigues and hard- 
fhipS which the negroes endure, are the 
caufe ; but the Indians undergo many 
more : — others have faid it is owing to 
the change of climate ; but this is fupple- 
tory : — while the enthufiaftic divines at- 
tribute it to the fin of Eve, and to thg 
burfe laid on the Canaanites. The deifts 
&{k thofe divines, If Eve was not the 
bmmon mother of the White, blacky 
»hd copper-fcoloured women $ and ho# 


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it appears that npgroes are the defendants 
of the people of Canaan ? Their apfwer 
is, All nature is myftery; 

The wotpen of Conne&icut are ftri#Iy 
yirtuQus, and to be compared to the 
prude rather than the European polite 
Jady, They are not permitted to read 
plays i cannot conyerfe about vyhift, 
quadrille, or operas ; but will freely talk 
upon the fubje<3s of hiftory, geography, 
and the mathematics. Th^y jar^ great 
cafuifts and polemical divines ; and \ have 
known not a few of them fo well fkilkcj 
in Greek and Latin, as often jo pjit tQ 
the blu(h learned gentlepen. 

Notwithftanding the modefty of the 
females is fuch, that it would be accounted 
the greateft rudenefs for a gentleman to 
fpeajc before a lady of a garter, knee, 
or leg, yet it is thought but a piece of 
civility to a(k her to bundle j acuftom 
£s old as the firft fettlement in 1634. It 
$ certainly innocent, virtuous, ai}d pru- 

Y 3 dent? 

• j ...... ; 


dent; or the puritans would not have 
permitted it to prevail among their off* 
ipring, for whom in general they would 
fuffer crucifixion. Children brought up 
with the chafteft ideas, with fo much 


religion, as to believe that the omnifcient 
God fees them in the dark, and that angels 
guard them when abfent from their pa- 
rents, will not, nay, cannot adt a wicked 
thing. People who are influenced more 
by luft, than by a ferious faith in God, 
who is too pure to behold iniquity with 
approbation, ought never to bundle. If 
any man, thus a ftranger to the love of 
virtue, of God, and the chriftian religion, 
fhould bundle with a young lady in New- 
England, and behave himfelf unfeemly 
towards her, he muft firft melt her into 
paflion, and expel heaven, death, and hell, 
from her mind, or he will undergo the 
chaftifement of negroes turned mad— 
if he efcape with life, it will be owing 
to the parents flying from their bed to 


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protedt him. The Indians, who had 
this method of courtfhip, when the Eng? 
Ji(h firft arrived among them in 1634, arc 
the moft chafte fet of people in the world. 
Concubinage and fornication are vices 
none of them are addidted to, except fuch 
as forfake the laws of Hobbamockow and 
turn chriftians. The favages have taken 
many female prifoners, carried them bacl£ 
300 miles into their country, and kept 
them feveral years, and yet not a finglc 
inftance of their violating the laws cf pha- 
ftity has ever been known. This cannot 
be faid of the French, or of the Englifh, 
whenever Indian or other women have 
fallen into their hands. I am no advo- 
cate for temptation j yet muft fay, that 
bundling has prevailed 160 years in Newr 
England, and, I verily believe, with tei* 
limes more chaftity than the fitting on a 
fopha. I had daughters, and fpeak from 
near forty years experience. Bundling 
fakes place only in cold feafons of the 

Y 4 year™ 


year — the fopha in Cummer is more dange. 
rpus than the hed in winter. About the 
year 1756, Bofton, Salem, Newport, and 
New-York,refolving tp be more polite than 
their anceftors, forbade their daughters 
bundling on the bed with any young men 
whatever, and introduced a fopha to ren- 
der courtfliip more palatable ^nd Turkifo. 
Whatever it was owing to, whether to 
the fopha, or any uncommon excefs of 
the feu d'efpnt, there went abroad a 
report, that this raffinage produced more 
natural confequences than all the bundling 
among the boors with their rurales per 
dantes^ through pvery village in New? 
England befides. 

In 1766, a clergyman from one of the 
polite towns, went into the country, and 
preached againft the unchriftian cuftom 
of young men and maidens lying together 
on a bed. He was no fooner out of the 
church, than attacked by a fhoal of good 
wQ.ld wo^ien, with, " $ir, do you think 

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> c we and our daughters arc naughty, 
" becaufe we allow of bundling?" He 
anfwered, " You lead yourfelves into 
" temptation by it." They all replied at 
once, u Sir, have you been told thus, or 


" has experience taught it you ?" The 
Levite began to lift up his eyes, and to 


confider of his fituation, and, bowing, 
faid, " I have been told fo." The ladies, 
una voce, bawled out, <c Your informers, 
" Sir, we conclude, are thofe city ladies 
u who prefer a fopha to a bed ; we ad- 
" vife you to alter your fe.rmon by 
" fubftituting the word Sopha for Bun- 
<c dling) and, on your return home, 
" preach , it to them ; for experience 
€€ has told us that city folks fend more 
"children into' the country without 
<c father or mothers to own them, than 
" are born among us : therefore, you fee, 
" a fopha is more dangerous than a bed/' 
The poor prieft, feemingly convinced of 
&i» blunder, exclaimed, " Nec vitia nojlra. 



" nec remedia pati poffumus" hoping 
hereby to get rid of his guefts ; but an 
old matron pulled off her fpedtacles, and, 
looking the prieft in his face like a Ro- 
man heroine, faid, " Noli put are me hac 
€t auribus tuis dare." Others cried out 
to the prieft to explain his Latin. " The 
Englifh," faid he, u is this : Won me that 
I Jojcurn in Mefeck, and dwell in the tents 
of Kedar ! One pertly retorted, Gladii de- 
cujjati funt gemina prejbyteri clavis. The 
prieft confefled his error, begged pardon, 
and promifed never more to preach againft 
Bundling, or to think amifs of the cufr 
torn : the ladies generoufly forgave him, 
and went away. 

It may feem very ftrange to find this 
cuftom of Bundling in bed attended with 
fo much innocence in New - England, 
while in Europe it is thought not fafe or 
fcarcely decent to permit a young man and 
maid to be together in private any-where. 
But in this quarter of the old world the 

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vicioufnefs of the one, and the fimplicity 
of the other, are the refult merely of edu^ 
cation and habit. It feems to be a part 
of heroifm, among the poliflied nations 
of it, to facrifice the virtuous fair- one, 
whenever an opportunity offers, and thence 
it is concluded that the fame principles ac- 
tuate thofe of the new world. It is egre- 
gioufly abfurd to judge of all coun- 
tries by one. In Spain, Portugal, and 
Italy, jealoufly reigns ; in France, Eng- 
land, and Holland, fufpicion j in the Weft 
and Eaft Indies, luft ; in New-England, 
fuperftition. Thefe four blind deities 
govern Jews, Turks, Chriftians, Infidels, 
and Heathen. Superftition is the mod 
amiable. She fees no vice with approba- 
liori but pcrfecution, and felf-prefervation 
is the caufe of her feeing that. My infu- 
lar readers will, I hope, believe me, when 
I tell them, that I have feen, in the Weft- 
Indies, naked boys and girls (fome 15 or 
j 6 years of age) waiting at table and at 




tea, even when twenty or thirty virtuoui 
Englifh ladies were in' the room ; who 
were under no more embankment 
at fuch an awful fight in the eyes of 
Englifh people that have nof travelled 
abroad, than they would have been at 
the fight of fo many fervants in livery. 
Shall we cenfure the ladies of the Weft- 
Indies as vicious above all their fex, on 
account of this local cijftom ? By no 
means ; for long experience has taught 
the world that the Weft- Indian white 
ladies are virtuous prudes. Where fuperfti? 
tion reigns, fanaticifm' will be minifter of 
ftate ; and the people, under the taxation 
of zeal, will (hun what is commonly 
called vice with ten times more care than 
the polite and civilized chriftiafls, who 
know what js right and what is wrong 
from reafon and revelation. Happy woulc} 
it be for the world, if reafon and revela? 
tion were fuffered to controul the min4 
jwjtd paffions of the great and wife rpen of 

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C? O N N E fc f I C U f . 33 j 

tne earth, as fupcrftition does thofe of th6 
fimple and lefs polifhed ! When Ame- 
rica fhall eredt focieties for the promotion 
of chaftity in Europe, in return for the 
feftablifhment of European arts in the Ame- 
rican capitals j then Europe will difcover 
that there is more chriftian philfofophy in 
American Bundling than can be found iri 
the cuftoms of nations more polite. 

I fhould not have faid fo much about 
Bundling, had not a learned Divine * of 
the Englifh church publiflied his Travels 
through fome parts of America, wherein 
this remarkable cuftom is reprefented in 
ian unfavourable light, and as prevailing 
among the lower clafs of people. Thd 
truth is, the cuftom prevails among all 
clafles, to the great honour of the coun- 
try, its religion, and ladies. The vir- 
tuous may be tempted; but the tempter 
Is defpifed. Why it (hould be thought 

* Dr. Burnaby. 



incredible for a young man and 4 
young woman innocently and virtu* 
oufly to lie down together in bed with 
a great part of their cloaths on, I 
cannot conceive. Human paffions may 
be alike in every region j but religion, 
divcrfified as it is, operates differently in 
different countries. Upon the whole, 
had I daughters now, I would venture to 
let them bundle on the bed, or even on 
the fopha, after a proper education, fooner 
than adopt the Spanifh mode of forcing 
young people to prattle only before the 
lady's mother the chitchat of artlefs lovers* 
Could the four quarters of the world pro- 
duce a more chafte, exemplary, and beau- 
tiful company of wives and daughters 
than are in Connecticut, I (hould not 
have remaining one favourable fentiment 
for the province. But the foil, the rivers, 
the ponds* the ten thoufand landflcips, 
together with the virtuous and lovely wo- 
men which noW adorn the ancient king- 

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doms of Connedticote, Saflacus,and Quin- 
hipiog, would tempt me into the higheft 
wonder and admiration of them, could 
they once be freed of the fkunk, the 
moping-owl, rattle-fnake, and fanatic 

My readers will naturally be defirous 
of information in what manner the peo- 
ple of Connecticut condufted themfelves 
in regard to the ftamp-aft, which has 
proved the fubjedt of fo much fpeculation 
and controverfy both in America and 
Europe : I will, therefore, give a par- 
ticular account of their proceedings con- 
cerning it; which will perhaps appear to 
have been of far greater confequence than 
is generally fuppofed in England. 

The American colonifts were no fooher 
extricated from all danger of Gallic depre- 
dation by the peace of 1763, than they 
began to manifeft fymptoms of ingratitude 
and rebellion againft their deliverers. 
Connefticut, on feveral accounts, parti- 



iicularly that of its free conftitution \ft 
church and ftate, which prevented ever^ 
interruption from a King's Governor, was 
fixed upon as the fitteft fite for raifing 
the firft fruits of jealoufy and diffaffe&iori. 
Nor did the hatred, which kept the pro- 
vince at eternal ftrife within itfelf on all 
bther occalions, prevent its political coin- 
cidence upon this. In 1764, delegates 
from every difTenting aflbciation in Ame- 
rica Cohveried at Newhaven, and fettled 
their plan of operations. They voted, 
that the American vine was endangered by 
the encroachments of the Englifh parlia- 
taent, aftd the Society for the Propagatioh 
of the Gofpel in Foreign Parts i that 
epifcopacy was eftablifhed in Nova- Scotia, 
and miflionaries maintained by the Englifli 
government, while New^-England and 
other American ftates were taxed (o fup- 
port that fame government ; that a league 
and covenant ought to be made arid figned 
by ail good prcteftants againft the machi- 

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Connecticut. 33/ 

nations of their enemies, and in defence 
of their civil and religious liberties $ that 
it was the duty of all good proteftants 
to ftand upon their guard, and colledl 
and fend every kind of interefting intel- 
ligence to the Moderator at Hertford, 
whofe bufinefs would be to communicate 
the fame in his circular letters to the true 
friends of proteftant liberty. 

In my opinion, whoever docs not per* 
ceive the fpirit of civil as well as religious 
independence in this convention and thefe 
refolutions of diffenting divines, muft be 
politically blind. 

Whilft Mr. Grenville was exerting his 
financial faculties for the relief of the mo- 
ther-country, ready to fink uader the 
load of expence brought upon her by that 
war which had opened an avenue to 
higheft exaltation for her American off- 
fpring, Connedticut was early advertifed 
by merchants, divines, and ladies, in Eng- 
land* that the parliament' was about to 

Z give 




give the colonies a fpecimen of Englifli 
burthens. The confociation ordered a 
faft, to deprecate the threatened judg- 
ments. This faft was ferved up with fer- 
mons pointing out the reigns of wicked 
kings, and what the fathers of the howl- 
ing wildernefs of America had luffcred 
from the Kings, Lords, and BHhops, in 
the laft century; and concluded with, 
€t One woe is paft, and behold, there 
" come two woes more hereafter !" 

A requilition having been made in 
1763 that each colony in America Chould 
raife a revenue to affift Great-Britain in 
difcharging the national debt, which had 
been partly incurred at their requeft, and 
for their prefervation, the General Af- 
iembly was inftrufted by Dr. Franklin 
and others how to adt. Accordingly, 
the Affembly refolved not to raife any 
money towards the national debt, or any 
national expences, till the Parliament 

(hould remove the navigation a&, which, 


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they faid, was advantageous to Great- 
Britain, and difadvantageous to America ; 
and, therefore, Great Britain, in defray- 
ing the whole of the national expence, 
did nothing more than juftice required, 
fo long as that ad fliould be continued. 
Such were the arguments and refolution 
of the General Affembly, although their 
agent in England had informed them, 
that, if they refufed to comply with the 
requifition of the minifler, the Parliament 
would tax them. 

The agent's intelligence proved to be 
well grounded. In 1765, the Stamp adt 
pafled, beptfufe the colonies had refufed 
to tax: themfelves. News fo important 
fooh arrived in America ; and the Confo- 
ciation of Connecticut appointed another 
faft, and ordered the angels to found 
their trumpet s, and great plagues followed. 
Thomas Fitch, the Governor,, (hewed 
fome diflike to the proceedings of the 
Confociation, but was given to underftand 
^ ^ Z 2 " that 


i that Chrift's minifters a&ed by an autho- 
rity fuperior to that of a Governor of' 
a King. The epifcopalians, and many 
fe£ts, faw no reafon for keeping the 
faft ; but the Governor obferved it with 
a view to fecure his ele&ion- the next 
year, and was fuccefsful. The epis- 
copalians were rewarded for their difobe- 
dience with what was called " A new 
« religioils Comic Liturgy, 4 ' which was 
printed and circulated through the co* 
lony, as the performance, of Dr. Frank- 
lin, and afted in many towns by the 
young people on evenings, by way of 
/port and amufement. The titany was 
altered in many places, efpecially in the 
paragraphs refpedting the King, Nobi- 
lity, &c. and inftead of We befeech thee 
io hear us, good Lord ! was fubftituted, 
We befeech thee, 0 Cromwell 1 to bear [our 
prayers] us—O holy, blejjed and glorious 
Trinity I was altered thus, O Chatham ! 
Wilkes ! and Franklin ! have mercy upon 

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us. From plague, pefiilence, famine, &c. 
was followed by O Cromwell ! deliver us. 
An epifcopal clergyman had courage 
enough to complain of thefe blafphemous 
proceedings, and the grand jury indi&ed 
the comic a&ore ; but the magiftrate to 
whom the complaint was made, refufed to 
grant a warrant, uling worfe malediction 
againft the King than was contained in the 
ludicrous Litany. Hereupon the Grand 
Jury indi&ed the magiftrate for high trea- 
son, but no magiftrate could be found of 
refolution enough to grant a warrant 
againft the traitor. However, the Comic 
Liturgy was a#ed but privately after* 
wards, and, upon the repeal of the ftamp- 
a£t, was fuppreffed a« far as they could 

do it. 

This fccond faft was fen&ified with 
preaching on this and fimilar texts, And 
there arofe a new King in Egypt who re~ 
member ed not Jofepbs ahd with praying 
Cod to grant tixe King an hear* of fi${h ? 

Z 3 mi 


and to remove popery out of the Britfth 

The ftamp-a& was to take place in 
November, 1765; fome months before 
which the ftamp-mafter, Jared Ingerfol, 
Efq. who had been the colony's agent in 
England, arrived at Newhaven, in Con- 
nedticut. In September, a fpecial Affem- 
bly was convened at Hertford, for the 
purpofe of confidering what fteps to take. 
As if to avoid acknowledging the fupre- 
macy of the Britifli Parliament, they de- 
termined not to apply themfelves for the 
repeal of the aft ; but fecretly encouraged 
a number of lawyers, merchants, and 
divines, to meet, by their own authority, 
at New- York, for that purpofe. In the 
mean time, three mobs were raifed under 
Durgy, Leach, and Parfons, who by dif- 
ferent routs marched towards Newhaven 
to feize the ftamp-mafter. They fuc- 
Iceeded j and, having brought their pri- 
soner before the Affembly-houfe at Hert- 

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fbtd, they gave him the alternative to re- 
fign or die. Mr. Ingerfol appealed fcve- 
ral times by confidential meffengers to 
the Affembly then fitting ; but finding 
them inclined to countenance the mob, 
he was forced to refign, and authenticate 
the fame by whirling firft his hat and 
next his wig three times round his head, 
and then into the air ; whilft the General 
Aflembly 1 and Confociation (which laft 
Venerable body never fails to be ready 
with its counfel and afliftance on all lalu- 
tary occafions) fhouted with the muki- 
tude, from their windows, at the glorious 

This fpecial Affembly, having fuffici- 
ently manifefted the part they wifhed 
the colony to take, broke up, leaving 
farther proceedings to the mob*, who 


* The following inftance will (hew that a Con. 
ncfticut mob of Sober DiffenHrs is not inferior to a 
Loudon mob of drunken conformtjU^ either in 

Z 4 point 


continued to aft up to the fpecimen already 
given j and to the congrefs at New York, 


point of ingenuity, low humour, or religious 

The Jtamp-mafier was declared by the mob at 
Hertford to be dead. The mob at Lebanon un- 
dertook to fend Ingersol to bis own place. They 
made three effigies : one to reprefent Mr. Gren- 
ville \ another Ingerfol ; and a third, the Devil. 
The laft was drefied with a wig, bat, and black 
coat, given by parfon Solomon Williams, of Leba- 
non. Mr. Grenville was honoured with a hat, 
wig, and coat, a prefent from Mr. Jonathan 
Trumbull, who was afterwards chofen Governor. 
Mr. Ingerfol was drefled in red, with a lawyer's 
wig, a wooden fword, and his hat under his 
left arm, by the generoilty of Jofeph Trumbull. 
Thus equipped, the effigies were put into a cart 
with ropes about their necks, and drawn towards 
the gallows. A dialogue enfucd between the 
criminals. Some friendftiip feemed to fubfifi 
between Mr. Grenville and the Devil, while no- 
thing but fueers and frowns palTed from the Devil 
to Ingerfol ; and the fawning reverence of the 
latter gave his infernal highnefs fuch offence, that 
he turned up his breech and difcharged fire, brim- 

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which met there accordingly, agreed up* 
on and tranfmitted to England a petition 
for a repeal of the obnoxious a&. 

(lone, and tar, in Ingerfol's face, letting him 
all in a blaze; which, however, Mr. GrenvilJ? 
generoufly extinguiftied with a fquirt. This 
was many times repeated. As the proceffion ad- 
vanced, the mob exclaimed, 44 Behold the juft re* 
" ward of our agent^ who fold himfelf to Grenville, 
* c like Judas, at a price /" In this manner the fare* 
was continued till midnight, at which time they 
arrived at the gallows ; where a perfon in a long 
fhirt, in derifion of the furplice of a church cler^ 
gyman, addxeffed the criminals with republican 
atticifms, ralleries, Sec, concluding thus : " ^l?y 
your deaths be tedious and intolerable, and may 
your fouls fink quick down to htll^ the reftdence of 
tyrants, traitors, and devils }" The effigies 
were then turned off, and, after hanging fome time, 
were hoifted upon the top of a huge pile of wood* 
^nd burnt, that their bodies might (hare a fimilar 
fate wkh their fouls. This pious tran faction ex- 
alted the character of Mr. Trumbull, and facili- 
tated his election to the office of Governor: 
^nd what was of further advantage to him, his 
ffxoh judged that the bones of Jngerfol's effigy me- 


The Oftober feffion of the General-Af- 
fembly is always holden at Newhaven : 


ritcd chriftian burial according to the rites of the 
church of England* though he had been brought 
up a Sober Diflenter ; and refolved, therefore, to 
bury his bones in Hebron. Accordingly thither 
they repaired ; and, having made a coffin, dug a 
grave in a crofs ftreet, and made every other 
preparation for the interment, they fent for the 
cpifcopal clergyman there to attend the funeral of 
the bones of Ingerfol the traitor. The clergy- 
man told the meflengers that neither his office nor 
perfon were to be fported w ; th, nor was it his bu- 
finefs to bury Sober Dijfenters % who abufe the 
church while living. The mob, enraged at this 
anfwer, ordered a party to bring the clergyman 
by force, or fenJ him to hell after Ingerfol. Thl« 
alarmed the people of the town, who inftantly loaded 
their mufkets in defence of the clergyman. Thus 
checked in their mad career, the mob contented 
themfelves withafolemn funeral proceffion, drums 
beating, and horns blowing, and buried the coffin 
in the crofs ftreet, one of the pantomimes bawling 
out, IVe commit this traitor's bones to the earthy 
ajhes to duft and duji to afies, in fure and certain hope 
that his foul is in hell with all tories and enemies 

Digitized by C5 


there and then they were informed by 
Mr. Dyer *, who had made one of the 
petitioners at New- York, that it was re- 
commended by the Congrefs for the co* 
lonial Governors to take the oath pre- 
fcribed by the ftamp aft. The General 
Aflembly, however, voted that the Go- 
vernor of Connedticut (hould not take it ; 
and moreover determined to continue 

of Zion. Then, having driven a flake through the 
coffin, and each caft a ftonc upon the grave, 
they broke a few windows, curfed fuch clergymen 
as rode in chaifes and were above the controul of 
God's people, and went off with a witlefs faying, 
viz. If It is better to live with the church militant 
* 6 than with the church triumphant." 

* This Mr. Dyer had been in England, had pe- 
titioned for, and, through Dr. Franklin's intereft, 
obtained a new office at the port of New-London, 
viz. that of Comptroller ; but afterwards had 
thought proper to refign that office, in order to be 
made a judge of the fuperior court and one of the 
council, — and, forfooth, that a ftranger only 
might ferve the King of Great Britain in the cha- 
racier of a publican in Connecticut. 



Mr. Fitch in his office, notwithstanding 
the disfranchifemertt incident on his re- 
ftffal, if he would be guided by their ad- 
tice ; and the Rev. Mr. Ebenezer De- 
votion, one of the Reprefentatives, and 
Ehphalet Dyer (above mentioned), one 
Of the council, offered to pay the impofed 
fine of iooo/. However, the Governor 
prefented himfelf before the Council, 
whofe bufinefs it was to adminifter the 
oath j but which, it is thought, Mr. Fitch 
prefumed would be denied, and therefore 
artfully devifed this means at once of 
avoiding the oath and {hifting the penal- 
ties from himfelf upon them. Seven out 
of twelve, fufpedting the Governor's defign, 
put their fingers in their ears, fhuffled 
their feet, and ran groaning out of the 
houfe j the other five itaid, and admi- 
mftered the oath, with a view to fave 
themfelves and the charter, and direit the 
wrath of the people againft the Gover- 
nor $ but in this they were ttriftaken, in* 


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earring in common with him the odium, 
of the patriots. 

The ftamp-ad having thus gained 
footing, the Affembly broke up. Legal 
proceedings alfo were difcontinued, and 
the courts of juftice ftut. The Confo- 
ciation and Affociations kept frequent 
fafts of their own appointment, praying 
and preaching againft Roman -Catholic 
rulers, Arminian governors, folfe-hearted 
counfellors, and epifcopizing curates* 
Hereupon the mobs became Qutrageou&r 
fedition was law, and rebellion gofpel. 
The late ftamp - mafter was called a 
traitor to his country, and the epifcopa- 
lians enemies to Zion and liberty. 

The fallings, prayers, and riots, brought 
about a revolution in the colony. Fitch, 
who had taken, and the five affiftants who 
had adminiftered, the oath, as well as 
many officers both civil and military, 
who declined to take a rebellious part, 
were difmiffed from their pofts; and 

a new 


a new Governor, other counfellors, &c, 
were chofen, and the people fitted for 
every kind of mifchief $ all, however, 
under the pretence of religion and liberty. 
The patriotic Mr. Dyer diftinguifhed 
himfelf by furnifhing the fafting mi- 
nifters with proper materials to inflame 
the minds of the people againft the juft 
demands of the King. One of his 
Machiavelian dogma's was, that the 
King claimed the colonies as his patri- 
mony, and intended to raife a revenue in 
each province 5 and that, having gained 
this point, his purpofe was to govern 
England by America, and America by 
England, and thereby fubvert liberty and 
eftablifh tyranny in both, as the Kings of 
France had done by means of the va- 
rious parliaments in that country. Mr. 
Dyer declared he had this information 
from the beft authority in England ; and 
added, that the liberties of both coun- 
tries depended on America refitting the 

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ftamp-aft, even unto blood. Thefe and 
fuch-like reveries fupplled the minif- 
ters of the gofpel with a great body of 
political divinity, and the mob with cou- 
rage to break churchmens windows, and 
cry out, "No Bifhops ! no popery ! nor 
u King, Lords, and Tyrants 1" Every 
thing but decency and order over-run 
the colony. Indeed, the General Af- 
fembly kept up their meetings, but it 
was only to tranfadt fuch bufinefs as was 
not affe&ed by the ftamp-adl. The 
mobs of the fafting minifters continued 
their lawlefs proceedings, without further 
interruption and impediment than what 
they met with from the ftrenuous exer- 
tions of the King's friends, who had re- 
peatedly faved the lives of the ftamp- 
mafter, Governor Fitch, the five reje&ed 
counfellors, the epifcopal clergy, and many 
good fubje£te, at the hazard of their own, 
though they could not preferve them 
from daily abufe and infult. 


$$t MtSTOHY 0 

The mobs, having been fpirited tip 
find trained to violence and outrage fbf 
feveral months, began to give fome 
alarm even to their inftigators, efpe* 
dally as they Were hitherto difappointed 
in their expectations of the adt being re- 
pealed. The Governor and Council, there- 
fore, diredting their attention to the dan-* 
gerous confequences of the lawlefs ftate 
and refradtory temper the people were in, 
and being ftruck with the fore fight of 
their own perilous fituation, refolved, early 
Ifi 1766, to open the courts of law Undef 
the ftamp-adt, if the very next packet 
did not bring certain advice of its repeal $ 
and, all parties, who had ca*ifes depend- 
ing iri any court, were to be duly noti- 
fied by the Governor's proclamation. This 
determination was no lefs mortifying to the 
mob than grateful to the King's friends, 
who were convinced that the ftamp-adt 
ought, both in policy and juftice, to be 
Enforced, and therefore had riiked theif 


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lives, fortunes; characters, and colonial 
honours in its fupport. The patriots, 
now apparently fickened, with licentiouf- 
llefs, became very complaifant to the 
loyalifts, declaring that, in all their op- 
pofition to the ftamp-adt, they had meant 
riothing perfonal, and defiring to have 
part animofities buried in oblivion; All 
things thus fettled, tranquillity feemed to 
be returning; when, lo ! the packet ar- 
rived with the fatal news of the repeal of 
the ftamp-aft. Then a double portion of 
madnefs feized the patriots, who, in their 
excefs of joy, that vittory was gained over 
the beaft, and over his mark, utterly for- 
got their late penitential and tranquil pro- 
feflions ; branding the King's friends with 
the appellations of tories, jacobites, and 
papifts. The gofpel minifters left off 
their fafting, and turned th^ir mourning 
into joy and triumph. '* Now we be- 
4< hold," faid they in their pulpits, " that 
" Great-Britain is afraid of us ; for the 

A a «' (lamp- 



• K ftamp-a& is repealed, even upon the 
*< petition of an illegal body of men : if, 
« c therefore, we ftand faft in the liberties 
" wherein Cbrijt has made us free, we 
" need not fear in future the ufurpati'ons 
u of the King, Lords, and Bifliops af 
u England/' The accompanying claim af 
Parliament to the power of binding Ame- 
rica in all cafes whatfoever, was, indeed, 
a thorn which galled them much but 
they found a falvo in ordering a copy of 
the repeal to be burnt under the gallows 
by the common hangman. The General 
Aflembly alfo Hepped forward, and voted 
the populace feveral barrels of powder 
and puncheons of rum, together with 
loo/, in money, to celebrate the feftival. 
A tremendous mob met together at Hert- 
ford, and received their prefent. The 
powder was placed in a large briek febool, 
and the rum on the common fquare. 
"While each one was contending for his 
ihare, the powder took fire, _and blew 

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tip the fchool, killing 15 or 16 perfons, 
and wounding many. This difafter fhook 
the houfe where the Confociation was 
fitting; upon which they relblved that 
Heaven did not approve of their rejoicings, 
becaufe the repeal was but partial ; they, 
therefore, ordered a new faft to do away 
the iniquities of that day, and to implore 
the Supreme to direft them in what man- 
ner to guard againft the machinations of 
the locufls, who had a king over them, 
wbofe name in the Hebrew tongue is Abad- 
don, but in the Greek Apollyon. 

This faft was cooked up with a favou- 
rite text in New-England, viz. u He re- 
proved even Kings for their fake. 19 From 
thefe words the preachers proved that 
the King's power lay in his mouth and 
in his tail, which, like a ferpent, did 
hurt for a month and a year ; and that 
God would protedt his people againft 
the murders, the forceries, the fornica- 
tion, the thefts, of bi(hops> popes, and 

A a z kings, 


Jcings, and make nations angry, and give 
them power to . judge and to deftroy thofe 
who would deftroy his prophets and his 
faints. In this day of great humiliation, 
( the prophets entertained the faints with a 
fpice of rejoicing, becaufe Viftory was 
gotten over the beajl, and ever his image \ 
and over his mark, and over the number 
of his name : — u therefore," faid they, "re- 
joice, 0 inhabitants of the earth and of the 
Jea y becaufe we can yet buy and fell 
without the mark, or the name of the 
beaft, or the number of his name. 1 ' 

This bombaftic declamation againft the 
authority of Great-Britain raifed the paf- 
fions of a great portion of the multitude 
higher than was intended. They had 
lately been tutored to form high notions 
of their own confequence, had been in- 
toxicated with a life of confufion in a law- 
kfs country, and had now no relifh for a 
government of any kind whatever : accor- 
dingly, inflamed by the rbapfodies of the 


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preachers, they fet themfelves againfl: that 
of the colony j arguing, that, if the Lord 
would reprove Kings, Lords, and Bifhops, 
for their fake, he would aifo reprove go- 
vernors, magiftrates, and confociations, for 
their fake. This revolt of a part of the 
people was encouraged and ftrengthened 
by the adherents of Governor Fitch, the 
fivedifcarded counfellors, and the loyalifts; 
fo that very formidable bodies foon ap- 
peared in divers towns, threatening de- 
ftrudtion to the General AfTembly, con- 
fociation,aflbciations, executive courts, &c. 
&c. Colonel Street Hall, of Walling- 
ford, a loyalift, was appointed General 
over thefe iupreme multitudes. They 
foon acquainted the General AfTembly 
and Confociation, that, by the authority 
that England had been reformed, by the 
fame authority mould ConnL&icut be re- 
formed ; and Mr. Hall fent a letter to the 
judges of the county court, then fitting at 
Newhaven, purporting, that it was not 
, A a 3 agree- 


agreeable to the people for them to con- 
tinue their proceeding?, or that any exe- 
cutions fihouLi be granted ; and conclud- 
ing thus, " Tou, that have ears to hear, 
c * hear what is faid unto you ; — for ive 
"J/:a/I quickly come! 1 ' The judges, with- 
out hefitation or adjournment, ran out of 
court, and went home as privately as 
poffible. The merchants, the gofpel mi- 
nifters, the lawyers, and judges, who had 
with great zeal inculcated the divine right 
of the people to refill kings, found them- 
felves in a ftarving condition under the 
exertion of that boafted right. The Ge- 
neral Aflembly and Affociaticn, however, 
again convened, and, after much fading 
and prayer, refolved, that the conduft of 
Street Hall, Elq. and his affociates, was 
feditious and trvafonable.; and ordered the 
Attorney-General, Colonel Elihu Hall, to 
indid his nephew Street Hall, for treafon- 
able pra&ices. The Attorney-General 
refufed to comply with their mandate, 


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whereupon he was difmifled, and James 
Hil!houfe, Efq. appointed in his place, 
who indited Street Hall ; but no fheriff 
■dared ferve the warrant. Street Hall or- 
dered his people to prepare for battle, and 
to be ready at a minute's warning ; and 
rode about with one fervant in defiance 
of the General Afllmbly, who likewife 
prepared to fupport their power. It was 
moft likely that Street Hall would have 
prevailed, had an engagement taken place $ „ 
for the epifcopalians, and all the friends 
of Mr. Fitch and the five difmifled coun- 
fellors, would have fupported Mr. Hall. 
But a battle was prevented by the interpo- 
fition of the Confociation with this curious 
Gofpel axiom, viz. that it was legal and 
politic in the people to oppofe and refift 
the foreign pavver which was unjuftly 
claimed by the K ing of Great-Britain j but 
it was neither politic nor right to oppofe 
the magiftrates and laws made by them- 
Jfelyes* They prevailed on Street Hall to 

A a 4 .coa 




condefcend to write to the General Af- 
fembly, to this effedt : " That he was a 
? c friend to the laws and conftitution of 
the colony, and wiflied to fupport both; 
f and fhould do it, on condition that 
" they would refcind their vote, and 
*' that no one fhould be profecuted for 
f c what had been done by him and 

" his affociates." The Affembly very 

gladly voted this overture of Street Hall 
to be fatisfadtory ; and thus peace was 
fe-eftabliiTjed between the Affembly and 
Street Hall. Neverthelefs, Mr. Hall was 
greatly cenfured by his partizans for this 
compromife; and he lived in conftant 
expectation of their hanging him, till he 
foftened them by this remarkable addref§ 
in vindication of his conduit : 

We have done," faid he, "every 
" thing in our power to fupport the autho T 
" rity of the Britifli parliament over the 
€i colonies. We have loft our property, 
f« local reputations, and all colonial of- 

" fices 

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'* ficcs and refpeft among our own coun- 
u tryinen, in defence of that King and 
f« Parliament, who have not flied a tear 
" at our fufFerings, nor failed to facrifice 
u their own dignity, and their beft friends, 
u to pleafe a party that will never be eafy 

until another Oliver arife to extirpate 
" Kings, Lords, and Bifliops. By hea- 
f vens I" added Street Hall, with great 
energy, " I will reft my life upon this 
f § fingle queftion, Who would ftand up in 
? c defence of a King who prefers his ene- 
M mies to his friends?— If you acquit me, 
5* I Aall more fully declare my prin- 
f c ciples," 

The mob, after much confideration, 
declared their approbation of Mr. Hall's 
condudt; upon which he refumed his 
addrefs nearly as follows : 

" Gentlemen, We have once been be- 
et trayed and forfaken by the King and 
f € Parliament of Great-Britain ; no de- 
f c pendence, then, ought henceforth to be 

<c placed 


4t placed upon cither. It is plain to mcl 
4i that, if we had extirpated the General 
4< Aflembly, and all the avowed enemies 
41 of the conftirution of Great-Britain, yet 
" that very Parliament would have been 
<£ the firfl of all the creation to honour us 
€t with a gallows for our reward. I 
K * therefore fwear, by Him who controuls 
44 the wheels of time, that, in future, I 
4i will fupport the laws and dignity oi this 
* f colony, and never more put any conji- 
** dence in Princes, or the Britifh Parlia- 
" ment. The Saviour of the World 

trufted Judas but once ; and it is my opi- 
" nion, that thofe who betray and for fake 
€t their friends, ought to experience the 
4t wrath and ingratitude of friends turned 
cc enemies. In this cafe, bafenefs is po- 
€t licy ; ingratitude, loyalty; and revenge, 
* -•-heroic virtue !" 

Colonel Street Hall fpoke with great 
vehemence, and might be cenfured for 
his raihnefs by people who were not in 


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America at the time : but his fentiments 
reached the hearts of half the King's 
friends there $ for the repeal of the ftamp- 
ad had fixed in their breafts an everlaft- 
ing hatred of the fickle temper of Britons. 
» Few people, hereafter, will advance 
fixpence in fupport of any ads of the Par- 
liament of Great-Britain over her colonies. 
Prior to the year 1766, fuch a public fpirit 
prevailed in America over private intereft, 
as would naturally have led the people to 
ponform to any ads of a Britifh Parlia- 
ment, from a deep-rooted confidence that 
the requifitions of Britain would be no 
other than the requifitions of wifdom and 
neceflity. Two thirds, I may fay with 
fafety, of all the people in America, 
thought there were wifdom and juftice in 
the ftamp-ad, and wifhed to have it con- 
tinued, firft, becaufe they were fenfible 
of being greatly indebted to the generofity 
and protedion of Britain ; fecondly, be- 
caufe they had rather be fubjed to the 



controul of Parliament in regard to a re- 
venue, than have it raifed by the autho- 
rity of their own affemblies, who favour 
the rich and oppreis the poor ; and, thirdly, 
becaufe the ftamp-adt would have pre- 
vented innumerable fuits at law, the cofts 
of which in Connecticut have, during the 
laft forty years, amounted to ten times as 
much as alj others for war, gofpel, phyfic, 
the poor, &c. &c, &c. It is impoffible 
to defcribe the difappointment and mortis 
fication they fuffered by the repeal of that 
aft : it cxpofed them to calumny, deri- 
lion, and opprefiion j it difheartened all, 
and occafioned the defection of many; 
whilft their adverfaries triumphed in the 
encouragement it Ijad given them to pro* 
fecute their malicious fchemes againft the 
church, king, laws, and commerce of 
England. However, in regard to the 
queftion of raifing a revenue in America, 
I have never met with one American 
yvho would not allow (though unwillingr 


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ly) the reafonablenefs of it, with certain 
conditions and provifos. Thus, 1. the 
judges and lawyers required the tax 
to be impofed by the General Affembly 
of each province : — 2. The merchants, 
whofe confcience is gain, and who com- 
monly conftitute more than half of the 
Affembly, declared, that, before any re- 
venue was raifed, the navigation - adt 
(hould be repealed, and the EafMndia 
Company, and all the monopolies, di£ 
folved: — 3. The Gofpel minifters, whofe 
power in New England is terrible to flefli 
and fpirit, would contribute to a revenue, 
after the King and Parliament had dropped 
their claim to fupreme authority over 
America, and fecured the American vine, 
againft the domination and ufurpations 
of biftiops. To thefe fources may be 
traced all the objections ever made againft 
a revenue in America, which fpring from 
three orders of men, of the leaft real be- 
nefit to that country, and whofe propor- 
tion to all others there is not as one to an 

hundred ; 


hundred ; though they have had the aft 
and addrefs, by impofition and delation, 
to involve them in their tumultuous, con- 
tentious, and ruinous projefts and under- 4 
takings. — Indeed, the clergy, lawyers, and 
merchants of European countries, have 
been reprefented, as the worft enemies 
of fociety — the great promoters of difcord, 
war, infurredtions, and rebellions $ but 
the heathen have not yet given us an 
example how depraved mankind would 
be without them. However, fuppofing 
the crimination to have foundation, them 
is one good reafon to be offered in pallia- 
tion of it. Moft governments are too apt 
to adopt the maxim of rewarding profpe- 
rous oppofing. zealots j whilft the exer- 
tions of oppreffed friends are palled over, 
if not with contempt, at leaft with filent 
neglefl:. Hence, men will naturally be 
induced, in defiance of law and gofpel, to 
head parties, to become confequential in 
the world. 

* * 


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THE preceding fheets bring the 
hiftory of Connecticut to its lateft 
period of amity with Great Britain, agree- 
able to the plan on which it was begun, 
I have been advifed, however, to lay be- 
fore my readers, in an appendix, a fum- 
mary account of the proceedings of the 
people of Connecticut immediately lead-* 
ing to their open commencement of hofti- 
lities againft the Mother-Country, not 
only becaufe fome events are not at 
all, or erroneoufly known here, but alfo 
becaufe they will form a fupplement ne- 
ceffary in ftveral inftances to what has 
been already related. Another reafon 
which induces me to make the propofed 
addition, is, the opportunity it will give me 
of laying before the Public, by way of in- 
troduction, fome matter which, I flatter 



myfelf, may not be wholly undeferving 
the attention of Government, at, I truft, 
an approaching lignal sera in Britifh and 
American hiftory. This, I am fure of, 
that no chimaera of vanity, but a thorough 
convi&on in my own breaft of the foun- 
dation they have in truth, is the fole mo- 
tive of my thus committing my thoughts 
upon the fubje£t to the prefs. 

Many writers have endeavoured to 
point out the motive which prompted 
the Americans to the wi(h of being in- 
dependent of Great-Britain, who had, 
for a century and a half, nurfed and pro- 
tected thern with parental tendernefs ; but 
they have only touched upon the reafons 
oftenfibly held up by the Americans, 
but which are merely a veil to the true 
caufes. Thefe, therefore, I fhall endea- 
vour to fet before the reader, unheed- 
ing the imputation of arrogance and pre- 
emption I may expofe myfelf to, and 
relying upon the knowledge I have of 


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A P P E N D I X. 369 

the temper and circumftances of the peo- 
ple for the juftification of my affertions. 

In the firft place, England, a6 if afraid 
to venture her conftitution in America, 
has kept it at an awful diftance, and efta- 
bliflied in too many of her colonies re- 
publicanifm, wherein the democratic ab- 
forbs the regal and ariftocratic parts of the 
Englifli conftitution. The people na- 
turally imbibed the idea that they were 
fuperior to Kings and Lords, becaufe they 
controuled their reprefentatives, gover- 
nors, and their councils. This is the in- 
fallible confequence of popular govern- 

Secondly, the Englifli have, like the 
Dutch, adopted the errors of ancient 
Rome, who judged her colonies could be 
held in fubjedtion only by natives of Rome;, 
and therefore all emoluments were care- 
fully with-held from natives of colonies. 

Thirdly, the learned and opulent fa- 
milies in America have not been honoured 

Bb by 

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by their King, like thofe born in Bri- 

Fourthly, the Americans faw them- 
felves defpifed by the Britons, " though 
bone of their bone 9 and fiejh of their fejh:" 
they felt, and complained of, without 
redrefs, the fad effe&s of convidts, the 
curfes of human fociety, and the difgrace 
of England, taken from the dungeons, 
jails, and gibbets, and poured into Ame- 
rica as the common (hore of England, to 
murder, plunder, and commit outrage 
upon a people " whom the King did not 
delight to honour" 

Hence the prefent rebellion. Human 
nature is always fuch, that men will ne- 
ver ceafe ftruggling for honour, wealth, 
and power, at the expence of gratitude, 
loyalty, and virtue. Indignation and de- 
fpair feized the gentlemen in America, 
who thought, like Haman, that their 
affluence and eafe were nothing worth, 
fo long as they lay under their Sovereign's 


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APPEND I X. 37 t 

contempt. They declared that the infult 
reached the whole continent* in which 
are to be found only two Baronets of 
Great-Britain, while all the other inhabi- 
tants are held beneath the yeomanry of 
England. They added, " Let Caefar trem-> 
" ble ! let wealth and private property 
u depart to deliver our country from the 
" injuries of our elder brethren.'* How 
eafily might this rebellion have been 
averted by the babiole of titles ! With 
what reafon faftions and difcontents fprung 
up in South-America, may be learned 
from the dear-bought wifdom of Spain, 
The Spaniards bom in the vice-royalties 
of Peru and New Granada, rich and 
learned, highly efteemed by their coun- 
trymen, and of more influence in their 
feveral provinces than all the nobility, 
clergy, and merchants, in Spain ; whofe 
fathers, to enlarge the empire of their 
fovereign, emigrated, with the natural 
rights of Spaniards, to almoft a burning 

B b 2 world, 



world, where they opened rocky mines, 
toiled in heats and rains to hew out gold 
and filver, to eredt and cover royal and 
noble domes and pave the roads of Hefpe- 
ria ; — thofe American - born Spaniards, 
I fay, were yet, after all, excluded from 
royal honours and truft, by a falfe 
and difgraceful principle that colonifts 
will only be loyal when poor and neg- 
lected — a maxim which (hook ancient 
Rome, failed Spain, and has thrown 
Britain into convulfions $ — a maxim falfe 
in nature and experience, without juftice 
and without policy ; — and, yet, a maxim 
which men in power have adopted 
with intention to fecure to themfelves 
and their pofterity the monopoly of noble 
blood— without once refle&tng, that emi- 
grants, who had been hardy enough to 
ftorm rugged mountains in the tranfatlan- 
tic world, for the fake of converting po- 
verty into riches, would afterwards feek 
honours and noble names through blaze and 



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ruin, with more avidity than adventurers 
under Pizarro ever fought the wealth of 
Potofi and La Plata. Kad the Dons of 
Spain been aftuated by principles of juf- 
tice, they would not have treated the 
Spanifli natives of South America as 
aliens, as a race of beings unworthy of 
royal notice, truft, and dignity, which 
they themfelves enjoyed, though they 
had never wet their fingers in exploring 
new worlds, or in perforating the golden 
Andes. — But experience and neceffity cut 
fhort their pride j and compelled them to 
liberal dealings with their diftant brethren, 
on pain of lofing them as they had loft 
the Netherlands. No good politician will 
v fuppofe merit lefs deferving of reward, 
merely becaufe the pofleflbr of it was born 
at the diftance of 5000 miles from Ma- 
drid ; or that royal favours belong folely 
to the nobility, who fhine more from 
their anceftors virtues than from their own. 
Spain took the hint in time, and fhared 

B b 3 roy il 

374 A P P E N D I X, 

royal honours amongft her younger bre- 
thren, which produced a conciliation be- 
tween her dominions in the two worlds, 
that age or deipair can never deftroy.— 
Spain tranfported to her colonies her own 
conftitution in church and ftate — re- 
warded merit in whatever part of her ter- 
ritories it appeared — fent bifhops to 
govern and ordain in every church in 
South America, and they, together with 
the native noblefTe, promote harmony, 
the offspring of juftice and policy ; while 
North America abounds with difcord, 
hatred, and rebellion, entirely from the 
want of policy and juftice in their party- 
coloured charters, and of the honours and 
privileges of natural-born fubjedts of Great 

It appears to me, that the Britifh go- 
vernment, in the laft century, did not exr 
pe& New- England to remain under their 
authority; nor did the New-Englanders 
confider themfelves as fubjedts, but allies, 





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of Great-Britain. It feems that England's 
intent was to afford an afylum to the re- 
publicans who had been a fcourge to the 
Britifli conftitution ; and fo, to encourage 
that reftlefs party to emigrate, republican 
charters were granted, and privileges and 

promifes given them far beyond what an 
Englifhman in England is entitled to. The 
emigrants were empowered to make laws, 
in church and ftate, agreeable to their 
own will and pleafure, without the King's 
approbation— they were excufed from all 
quit-rents, all government taxes, and 
promifed protedtion without paying 
homage to the Britifh King, and their 
children entitled to the fame rights and 
privileges as if born in England. How- 
ever hard this bargain was on the fide of 
England, (he has performed her part, 
except in this laft refpeft— indeed the 
moil material in policy and in the minds 
of the principal gentlemen of New-Eng- 
land. The honour of nobility has not been 

B b 4 conferred 


conferred on any of them ; and therefore 
they have never enjoyed flie full pri- 
vileges and liberties of Britons j but in 
a degree haVe ever been held in bondage 
under their chartered republican fyftems, 
wherein gentlemen of learning and pro- 
perty attain not to equal power with the 
peafants. The people of New-England are 
rightly ftiled republicans ; but a diftin&ion 
fhould be made between the learned and 
unlearned, the rich and poor. The lat- 
ter form a great majority j the minority, 
therefore, are obliged to wear the livery 
of the majority, in order to fecure their 
eledlion into office, Thofe very republi- 
can gentlemen are ambitious, fond of the 
power of governing, and grudge no money 
nor pains to obtain an annual office. 
What would they not give for a dignity 
depending not on the fickle will of a mul- 
titude, but on the ftcady reafon and ge- 
nerofity of a King? The merchants, 
lawyers, and clergy, to appearance are 


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republicans ; but I will venture to aflert, 
that not one in a hundred of them is 
really fo. The truth is, they found ne- 
ceflity on one hand, and Britifh negledt 
on the other, to be fo intolerable, that 
they rather chofe to rifque their lives and 
fortunes to bring about a revolution, than 
continue in the fituation they were. As 
to the multitude, they had no caufe of 
complaint : they were accufer, judge, king, 
and fubjedts only to themfelves. — The 
rebellion fprings not from them, but the 
merchants, lawyers, and clergy, who yet 
are not inimical to the ariftocratic branch 
of government, provided they are admitted 
to (hare in it according to their merit. 
It is true, they, like Calvin, the author 
of their religion, maintain, that no man 
can merit any thing of the Great Eternal : 
neverthelefs, they think they have merited 
the ariftocratic honours which emanate 
from earthly kings; while kings and 
nobles of the earth imagine themfelves to 



have merited more than they yet enjoy, 
even heaven itfelf, only becaufe they hap- 
pen to be defcendants of heroic anceftors. 

It is laid down as a maxim in Englifh 
politics, that the ariftocratic dignity is the 
great barrier between regal and popular 
power. Had Charles the Firft believed 
and obferved this do&rine, he had faved 
his own life and the liberties of his 
people ; and had Kings fince his death 
entertained the fame opinion of the No- 
bility, they would have multiplied and 
fpread them in every province as a royal 
blefling due to their fubjects. Would 
Britons confent tQ give up the Houfe of 
Lords ? If not, why fhould they wifli 
to debar America from fuch a favour ? 
Should the Englifh nobility imagine their 
own importance leffened by the increafe 
of Englifli Lords, they will not be able to 
prove that an American peerage would 
not be as ufeful in that country as an Eng- 
Jifh peerage is here. Policy and experience 



(hew that mankind are bound by their 
intereft and guided by their profpe&s s 
yet how remifs has England been in 
tempting her colonies with her own no- 
ble and glorious conftitution ! Is it at all 
furprizing, that, after a long fufferance of 
fuch negledt, and the evils I have pointed 
out, the hidden fire of indignation fliould 
at length break forth in America, with a 
blaze that fpreads ruin and death through- 
out that land, and ftrikes terror into this ! 
England now condefcends to view the 
Americans as fellow-fubjedts, and even 
treats with their generals, though taken 
from jails and outlawed by herfelf : early 
juftice and indulgence would have re- 
moved from the parent this humiliating 
condudl, and united both worlds in one 
bond of love. — But the day is far fpent, 
and will not wrath burn jor ever ? 

England has alfo been as careful to 
Jceep to herfelf her religion and Bifhops 
as her civil conftitution and baronies. 



An Indian chief once aflted me, fl Whe- 
u thcr Bifliops were too good or too bad 
f< for America ?" He added, " If they are 
<c good in England, why not in Amc- 
" rica ? and if bad, why preferred in 
u England ?" A million of churchmen in 
America have been confidered not worthy 
of one bifliop, while eight millions in 
South Britain, are fcarccly honoured 
enough with twenty-fix : an infult on 
common juftice, which would have extin- 
guiihed every fpark of affedtion in Ame- 
rica for the Englifh church, and created 
an everlafting fchifm like that between 
Conftantinople and Rome, had not the 
majority of the American epifcopal clergy 
been poflefled of lefs ambition than love 
and zeal. They have fuffered on both 
fides the Atlantic ia name * and property, 


* William Smith, in his Hiftory of New- York, 
p. 56, like his brother Douglas, aflerts, that the 
miflionaries and epifcopal clergy have been guilty 




for their endeavours to keep up a union 
between the mother and her children; 


of writing home to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gofpel c< amazing falflioods and mifrepre- 
fentations and he adds, " that it would be an 
agreeable office to him to diftinguifh the innocent 
from the guilty." Then why not fo prove his 
charge ? Becaufe, fays he, in p. 242, " the pru- 
«« dent hiftorian of his own times will always be a 
" coward, and never give fire, till death protects 
" him from the malice and ftroke of his enemy 
a fentiment borrowed from the old adage, Mortui 
non mordent, and truly worthy of the writer. 
But what have been Mr. Smith's character and 
prudence frnce the commencement of the prefent 
rebellion ? Did he not, in 1774, out of his great 
veneration for chriftianity, liberty, and his king, 
excite and encourage the mobs of New- York in 
their oppofition to the church, laws, and George III ? 
—In 1775$ did not he and his aflbciates, finding 
themfelves inefficient to effect their glorious pur- 
pofes, requeft the afliftance of their chriftian 
brethren of Connecticut againft the mighty ene- 
mies of the American Vine, who accordingly re- 
paired thither under the conduct of Waterbury and 
"Woofer, two villains that were conceived in Jin 



i . / 



but all their arguments and perfuafioni 
were infufEcient to convince their bre- 
thren that England would in future be 

and from the womb went /peaking lies ? Did not they 
fbon become matters of the city, and intolerable 
tyrants over loyal fubjccts ?— In 1776, did not 
Mr. Smith's mob plunder the city of New-York* 
not excepting the churches and college ; then fet 
it on fire, and fly by the blaze into the howling 
wildernefs, with the heroes mentioned in his Hif- 
tory, viz. Livingfton, Schuyler, Morris, and other 
traitors? From whence, in 1777, did not Mr. 
Smith return to New- York, by the advice of 
his comrades, to manifeft his loyalty and love of 
the proteftant religion, to ferve the Congrefs and 
his King, and to fave harmlefs the rebels above- 
mentioned, and their copartners in murder, plun- 
der, and treafon ? Are thefe the virtues, William 
Smith ! that, in 1780, were fo confpicuous, as to 
procure thy being appointed Chief Juftice of a 
facked and ruined people ?— The imprudent hijld- 
rian of his own times is no coward^ nor does he fear 
thy malice, which, above all things, except thy 
hypocrify and treachery, paffes all human under* 
fandhg. — " Quelques uns dirent, e'eft par Beelze- 
" bul qu'il chafTe les demons." Les autres dirent* 
que fa mere tenoit dc Tair de Marie Magdelaine, 
apres que la fage-femme eut chaflee trois demons. 



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more generous towards her colonies — One 
of the firft fruits of the grand continental 
meeting of diflenting divines at Newhaven 
was a coalition between the republican 
and the minor part of the epifcopal clergy, 
who were foon joined by the merchants, 
lawyers, and planters, with a view of 
procuring titles, ordination, and govern- 
ment, independent of Great Britain, who 
had too long played with divide & impera. 

Of fuch fort, I am bold to pronounce 
to the world, were the real fources of 
the prefent rebellion in America. The 
invafion of this or that colonial right, the 
oppreffion of this or that aft of parlia- 
ment, were merely the pretended caufes of 
it, which the ill-humour of a mifgoverned 
people prompted them eagerly to hold up; 
caufes, which would never have found 
exiftence, whofe exiftence had never 
been neceflary, if a better fyftem of Ame- 
rican policy had been adopted, but being 
produced, the (hadow of complaint wa9 



exhibited inftead of the fubftance — pre- 
tence* inftead of reality — every republican 
pulpit refounded with invedtives againft the 
King, Lords, and Commons, who claimed 
a power to tax and govern the people of 
America ; a power which their charters 
and anceftors knew nothing of, " Bri- 
M tons," faid they, " call our property 
" theirs ; they confider us as flaves, as 
<c hewers of wood, and drawers of water 9 
<c to the defcendants of thofe tyrants in 
u church and ftate, who in the laft cen- 
" tury expelled and perfecuted our fathers 
€( into the wilds of America. We have 
<c charters facred as Magna Chart a and 
" the Bill of Rightt." They declared 
that the liberties of America ought to be 
defended with the blood of millions ; that 
the Attorney General ought to impeach 
the Parliament of Great -Britain, and 
all its abettors, of high-treafon, for dar- 
ing to tax the freemen of America ; that 
each colony was a palatinate, and the 



people the palatine j that the people of 
Connecticut had as much authority to 
iffue a writ of Quo Warranto againft 
Magna Charta, as the King had to order 
fuch a writ againft the charter of Con- 

By ravings of this kind did the Sober 
Diflenters rrfanifeft their difcontents, when 
the various meafures for raifing a revenue 
in America were adopted by the Britifh 
miniftry. That of fending tea to Ame- 
rica in 1773, fubjedt to a duty of 3</. in 
the pound, payable there, particularly 
excited their clamour, as defigned, they 
faid, to eftablifli a precedent of Britifli 
taxation in that country ; and, notwith- 
ftanding all the remonftrances of the 
loyalifts, who ftrenuoufly exerted them- 
felves in removing vulgar prejudices, and 
procuring a reconciliation with circum- 
ftances rendered unavoidable by the necef- 
fity of the times, they effedtually inflamed 
the minds of the populace, by reading, in 

C c the 

3 86 


the meetings on Sundays, letters faid to 
have been fent by Dr. Franklin, J. Tem- 
ple, and a certain female writer in Eng- 
land, reprefenting the danger of paying 
any tax impofed by Parliament, and the 
evils proteftantifm was threatened with 
by a Roman Catholic King, by jacobites, 
tories, and the epifcopal clergy in both 
countries, all enemies to liberty and the 
American vine ; and adding, that, if the 
Americans paid the tax on tea, there were 
300 other taxes ready to be impofed upon 
them, one of which was " 50/. for every 
fon born in wedlock, to maintain the na- 
tural children of the Lords and Bifhops in 

The moderate counfel of the loyalifts 
had formerly been attended with fome 
effedt ; but it was forced to give place to 
the ribaldry juft mentioned j and an op- 
pofition much more refolute was deter- 
mined upon againft the tea-adt than had 
been made to the ftamp-adt A provin- 

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cial congrefs, committees of correfpon- 
dence, committees of fafety in every town* 
&c. &c. now ftarted up, for the purpofe 
of fetting the colony in an uproar againft 
the parliament of Great-Britain. To thia. 
end contributed not a little the falfhoods and 
artifices of Mr. Hancock and other 13of- 
tonian merchants, who had in their ftore- 
houfes near 40,000 half-boxes of teas 
fmuggled from the Dutch, which would 
never have been fold, had the Company's 
teas been once admitted into America, as 
the latter were not only the better in qua- 
lity, but, the duty being reduced from 1/. 
to 3//. would be alfo the much cheaper 
commodity. Mr. Hancock and his com- 
patriots, therefore, were by no means 
wanting in endeavours to procure the firft 
teas which arrived in New-England the 
reception they met with in the harbour of 
Bofton. That famous exploit afforded 
them an opportunity of clearing their 
warehoufes, which they prudently refolv- 

C c 2 ed 


cd to do as foon as poffible, left the re- 
ception of the Company's tea in other 
provinces, or other poffible circumflances, 
(hould afterwards put k out of their power* 
An idea began to prevail, that a non-im- 
portation of tea was an advifeable meafure 
upon the prefent occafion ; accordingly, 
they advertifed,that, after difpofing of their 
prefent flock, they would not import, or 
have any further dealings in tea, for two 
years. This at once tended to fill their 
pockets and exalt their charadters as pa- 
triots. The people, ignorant of the large- 
aefs of fuch flock, and apprehenfive of 
being deprived of an article they were 
paffionately fond of, eagerly furnifhed 
themfelves with quantities fufficient for 
that time, moflly of [about 30,-40, or 50 
pounds, notwithflanding the price was 
advanced is. per pound, upon the pre- 
tence of railing money to pay for the tea 
deflroyed in order to fecure the religion 
and liberty of America, which, under that 



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idea, It was generally acknowledged ought 
to be done. When the tea was moltly 
difpofed of, the people found that the extra 
price they had given for it was de- 
figned for the venders, inftead of the Eaft- 
India Company, whofe tea at the bottom 
qf the harbour was not to be paid for. 
They murmured ; whereupon the fmug- 
glers voted, that they would not drink 
any more tea, but burn on the common 
wfet they had left. Some tea was fo 
difpofed of, and the public- fpirited trans- 
action blazoned in the newfpapers. But 
this was not all : the fmugglers fent let- 
ters to the leaders of mobs in the country, 
enjoining them to wait upon the purchafers 
of their tea, and compel them to burn it 
as a proof of their patriotifm. Thofe ho- 
nourable inftrudlions were obeyed, to the 
real grievance of the holders of the tea, 
« Let Mr. Hancock," faid they, « c and 
€t the other merchant fmugglers, return 
u us our money, and then you (ball be 

C c 3 welcome 

l 9 o APPENDIX. 

u welcome to bum the tea, according to 
€t their orders.'' But it fignified nothing to 
difpute the equity of the requifition : the 
cry was " Join or die! 1 ' nor would the 
fons ofliberty be fatisfied with any-thing 
kfs, than that each owner of tea fhould 
with his own hands bring forth the fame, 
and burn it ; and then fign a declaration, 
that he had adted in this affair voluntarily, 
and without any compulfion whatever j 
and, moreover, pay the printer for in- 
ferring it in the newfpaper. 

An adfc of parliament for (hutting up 
the port of Bofton was the immediate 
confequence of the deftrudtion of the 
Eaft- India Company's tea. It took place 
in June, 1774 j and was confidered by 
the Americans as defigned to reduce the 
Boftonians f€ to the moft fervile and mean 
" compliance ever attempted to be im- 
" pofed on a free people $ and allowed to 
M be infinitely more alarming and dange- 
' c vous to their common liberties,than even 


xl that hydra the Hump-aft." Due cane 
had been taken to enfure its inforcement, 
by fending General Gage as Governor to 
Bcfton, where he arrived the preceding 
month, with a number of troops. De- 
termined, however, as the Parliament 
feemed on compulfion, the colonifts were 
equally bent on refiftance, and refolved- 
upon a continental congrefs to dired: their 
operations. In the mean time, contri- 
butions for relieving the diftreffed people 
in Bofton were voted by the colonies; 
and Connecticut, through the officiouf- 
nefs of its Governor, had the honour of 
felting an example by railing the firft. 
Every town which did not fubfcribe to 
the fupport of the Boftonians was ftigma- 
tized as a tory town. The firft that re- 
fufed was loyal Hebron. There it was 
voted, <c That, when the people of Bof- 
ton fhould have paid for the teas that 
were deftroyed, and behave like honeft 
men, the town would give them fupport, 

C c 4 if 


if their port was not opened by the King;" 
i — a vote, which, for a time, put a flop 
to further colledions in the province. 
The patriots imputed it to the influence 
of the Rev, Mr. Peters (of whom I have 
already fpoken) and his family. Many 
were the attempts tried to ruin his cha- 
racter, but unfuccefsfully : — he was too 
well beloved and befriended in the town. 

Falfhood and fedition had now for 
fome time been every day increafing in 
the province ; and men, who were fecret 
propagators of traitorous opinions, pre- 
tended in public to look up to the Confo- 
ciation, the great focus of divine illumi- 
nation, for direction. After much fad- 
ing and praying, that holy leaven difco- 
vered an admirable method of advancing 
the bkffed work of proteftaqt liberty. 
The doors of prifons were opened, and 
prifoners became leaders of mobs com- 
pofed of negroes, vagabonds, and thieves, 
who had much to gain and nothing to 


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lofe. The befom of deftrudtion firft 
cleared away the creditors of the rene- 
gadoes ; and then the Sandemanians, pref- 
byterians, and epifcopalians. The un- 
fortunate complained to the governor and 
magiftrates of the outrages of thofe ban- 
ditti, begging the protection of the laws. 
The following was the beft anfwer re- 
turned by the magiftrates : <c The pro- 
cc ceedings of which you complain, are 
•< like the ads of parliament : but be this 
" as it may, we are only fervants of the 
" people, in whom all power centers, 
" and who have afiumed their natural 
u right to judge and adt for themfelves." 
The loyalifts armed to defend their pro- 
perty againft thofe public thieves, but the 
liberty boys were inftantly honoured with 
the prefence of minifttrs, deacons, and 
juftices, who caufed the grand jury to 
indidt, as tories and rioters, thofe who pre- 
fumcd to defend their houfes, and the 
ccuits fined *md imprifoned them, 

4 Thus 



Thus horridly, by night and day, 
were the mobs driven on by the hopes of 
plunder, and the pleafures of domineering 
over their fuperiors. — Having fent terror 
and lamentation through their own colony, 
the incarnate fiends paid a vifit to the 
epifcopalians of Great Barrington, in the 
weftern confines of Maffachufets-Bay, 
whofe numbers exceeded that of the Sober 
Diffenters. Their wrath chiefly fell upon 
the Rev, Mr. Boftwick and David Inger- 
fol, Efq. The former was lafhed with his 
back to a tree, and almoft killed ; but, 
on account of the fits of his wife and mo- 
ther, and the fcreamings of the women 
and children, the mob releafed him upon 
his figning their league and covenant. 
As to Mr. Ingerfol, after demoliftiing his 
houfe and ftealing his goods, they brought 
him almoft naked into Connecticut, upon 
a horfe's bare-ridge, in fpite of the dif- 
treflcs of his mother and fifter, which 
were enough to melt the hear* of a favage, 


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thougji producing in the Sober Dijfenters 
nothing but peals of laughter that rent the 
fkies. Treatment fo extremely barbarous 
did Mr. Ingerfol receive at their hands, 
that the Sheriff of Litchfield county could 
not withhold his interpofition, by which 
means he was fet at liberty after fign- 
ing the league and covenant. The grand 
jury indidted fome of the leaders in this 
riot ; but the court difmiffed them, upon 
receiving information from Bofton, that 
Ingerfol had feceded from the houfe cf 
reprefentatives, and declared for the King 
of England. — What caufed this irruption 
of the mob into great Great Barrington 
follows : — The laws of Maflachufets-bay 
give each town a power to vote a tax for 
the fupport of the miniftry, fchools, poor, 
&c. The money, when collefted, is de- 
pofited with the town-treafurer, who is 
obliged to pay it according to the deter- 
mination of the majority of voters. The 
Sober DiJJenters, for many years, had 



been the majority in Barrington, and had 
annually voted about 200/. fterling for the 
miniftry, above half of which was taken 
from churchmen and the Lutherans, 
whofe minifters could have no part of it, 
becaufe, feparately, the greateft number 
of voters were Sober Diffenters, who gave 
the whole to their minifter. This was 
deemed liberty and gofpel in New-Eng- 
land j but mark the fequel. The Lu- 
therans, and fome other feds, having 
joined the church party, the church 
gained . the majority. Next year, the 
town voted the money as ufual for the 
miniftry, &c. but the majority voted that 
the treafurer ftiould pay the (hare appoint- 
ed for the miniftry to the church clergy- 
man, which was accordingly done: 
whereupon the Sober Dijfenters cried out, 
Tyranny and perfecution ! and applied to 
Governor Hutchinfon, then the idol and 
protedtor of the independents, for relief, 
flis Excellency, ever willing to leave, 

M Paul 

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u Paul bound," found a method of re- 
verfing the vote of the majority of the 
freemen of Barrington in favour of the 
churchmen, calling it u a vote obtained 
by wrong and fraud/' The Governor, 
by law or without law, appointed Major 
Hawley, of Northampton, to be the mo- 
derator of the town- meeting in Barring- 
ton. The Major accordingly attended > 
but, after exerting himfelf thiee days in be- 
half of his opprefled brethren, was obliged 
to declare that the epifcopalians had a 
great majority of legal voters : he then 
went home, leaving matters as he found 
them. The Sober Dijfenters were always 
fo poor in Barrington, that they could not 
have fupported their minder without tax- 
ing their neighbours ; and when they loft 
that power, their minifter departed from 
them, <c becaufe," as he faid, " the Lord 
« c had called him to Rhode-IQand." To 
overthrow the majority of the church, 
and to eftablifh the American Vine upon 


its old foundation, was the main inten- 
tion of the Sober Dijenters of Connedti- 
cut in vifiting Great Barrington at this 

The warlike preparations throughout 
the colonies, and the intelligence obtained 
from certain credible refugees of a fecret 
defign formed in Connecticut and Mafia- 
chufets-bay to attack the royal army, in- 
duced General Gage to make fome forti- 
fications upon Bofton-Neck, for their fe- 
curity. Thefe of courfe gave offence ; 
but much more the excurfion of a body 
of the troops on the 19th of April, 1775, 
to deftroy a magazine of ftores at Con- 
cord, and the lkirmiflies which enfued. 
In a letter of the 28th of April, from Mr 
Trumbull, the Governor of Connecticut, 
to General Gage, after fpeaking of the 
" very jufl and general alarm" given the 
c< good people" of that province by his 
arrival at Bofton with troops, and fubfe* 
quent fortifications, he tells the General, 


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that eC the late hoftile and fecret inroads 
u of fome of the troops under his com- 
, " mand into the heart of the country, 
<c and the violences they had committed, 
" had driven them almoft into a ftate of 
u defperation." Certain it is, that the 
populace were then fo maddened, by falfe 
reprefentations and aggravations of events 
unfortunate and lamentable enough in 
themfelyes, as to be quite ripe for the 
open rebellion the Governor and Aflembly 
were on the point of commencing, though 
they had the effrontery to remonftrate 
againft the defenfive proceedings of the 
General, in order to conceal their treach- 
ery. Further on, in the fame letter, Mr. 
Trumbull writes thus : cc The people of 
" this colony, you may rely upon it, ab- 
" hor the idea of taking arms againft the 
€t troops of their fovereign, and dread no- 
<ff thing fo much as the horrors of civil 
u war; but, at the fame time, we beg 
*• leave to affure your Excellency, that, 


" as they apprehend themfelvesjuftified by 
€t the principle of felf-defence, fo they 
<c are mod firmly refolved to defend their 
« f rights and privileges to the laft ex- 
" tremity ; nor will they be reftrained 
" from giving aid to their brethren , if any 
u unjuftifiable attack is made upon them. 

" Is there no way to* prevent this 

" unhappy difputc from coming to ex- 
" tremities ? Is there no alternative 
" but abfolute fubmiffion, or the defola- 
** tions of war ? By that humanity which 
€i conftitutes fo amiable a part of your 
" charadter ; for the honour of our fo- 
ft vereign, and by the glory of the Bri- 
" tifli empire, we intreat you to prevent 
* c it, if it be poflible. Surely, it is to be 
tc hoped, that the temperate wifdom of 
" the empire might, even yet, find ex- 
" pedients to reftore peace, that fo all 
" parts of the empire may enjoy their par- 
u ticular rights, honours, and immunities. 
" Certainly, this is an event moft devout- 

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" ly to be wi£hed for ; and will it not be 
"/confident with your duty to fufpend 
rc the operations of war on your part, and 
« c enable us on ours to quiet the minds of 
c< the people, at leaft, till the refult of 
" fome further deliberations may be 
f< known ?" &c. &c. 

Frorti this letter, written as it was by 
the Governor of a province, at the defire 
of its General Affembly, the people of 
England may learn to think of American 
as they do of French fincerity. It is al- 
moft paft credit, that, amidft the earneft 
proteftations it contains of a peaceable 
difpofition in Mr. Trumbull and the reft 
of his coadjutors in the government of 
Conne&icut, they were meditating, and 
actually taking meafures for the capture 
of certain of the King's forts, and the de- 
ftfudtion of General Gage and his whole 
army, inftead of quieting the minds of the 
people! Yet fuch was the fad:. They 
bad commiffioned Motte and Phelps to 

D d draught 

4 02 APPEND! X. 

draught men from the militia, if volun- 
teers fliould not readily appear, for a fc- 
cret expedition, which proved to be againft 
Ticonderago and Crown-Point; and the 
treafurer of the colony, by order of the 
Governor and Council, had paid 1 500/. to 
bear their expences. Nay, even before 
the date of the above amicable epiftle, 
Motte and Phelps had left Hertford on 
that treafonable undertaking, in which 
they were joined on the way by Colonels 
Allen and Eafton. Nor was this the only 
infidious enterprize they had to cover. 
The u good people" throughout the pro- 
vince, to the number of near 20,000, 
were fecretly arming themfelves, and 
filing off, to avoid fufpicion, in fmall 
parties of ten or a dozen, to meet " their 
brethren," the Maflachufets ; not, how- 
ever, with the view of " giving aid," 
" fliould any unjuftifiable attack be made 
" upon them," but to surprize Bofton 
by ftorm. In addition to the Go- 


vernor's letter, the mock-peace-makers 
the General Affembly had deputed Dr. 
Samuel Johnfon, fori of the Rev. Dr. 
Johnfon, fpoken of in this work, and 
Oliver Wolcot, Efq. both of the Council, 
which had ordered the 1500/. for the ad- 
venturers to Ticonderago, to wait upon 
General Gage, the more effedtually to 
amufe and deceive him into confidence and 
inadtion. But happily, at a critical time, 
juft before the intended ftorm and {laugh- 
ter at Bofton, the news of the fuccefs of 
the fecret expedition reached that town, 
which fully difcovered the true charadter 
and bufinefs of the two Connecticut am- 
baffadors, and rendered it neceflary for 
them, fans ceremonie, to retire from Bof- 
ton, and for General Gage, immediately, 
to render the fortifications at the Neck 

Thus did Conne&icut, from its hot- 
bed of fanaticifm and fedition, produce 
the firft indubitable overt-adt of high-trea. 

D d 2 fon 

4 o 4 APPENDIX. 

» » 

fon in the prefent rebellion, by actually 
levying war, and taking, vi et arm's, the 
King's forts and ftores; and, moft pro- 
bably, its obftinacy will render this the 
laft of all the revolted ftates to acknow- 
ledge the fupremacy of Parliament. 

The Sober Dijfenters, chagrined at be- 
ing difappointed in their hoftile projedt 
againft Bofton, readily embraced the 
opportunities which offered of wreaking 
their vengeance upon New-York. At the 
inftance of the rebel party there, who found 
themfelves too weak to efFeft their pur- 
pofe of fubverting the conftitution of the 
province, a large body immediately ported 
to their afliftance, delivered " their bre- 
thren" from the flavery of regal govern- 
ment, and inverted them with the liberty 
of doing that which was fit in their own 
eyes, under the democratic adminiftration 
of the immaculate Livingfton's, Morris, 
Schyler, &c. &c. As feemed neceflary to 
the furtherance of their pacific views, 



frequent irruptions were made afterwards, 
in which many loyalifts were difarmed 
and plundered, and fome of them taken 
prifoners. Among thefe laft were the 
Rev. Dr. Seabury and the Mayor of New- 
York. Governor Tryon happily efcaped 
their fury; as alfo did, very narrowly, 
the Rev. Miles Cooper, LL. D. who was 
leaving his houfe through a back window, 
when a party of ruffians burft into his 
chamber, and thruft their bayonets into 
the bed he had juft quitted. Mr. Riving- 
ton, whofe cafe has been publiftied, was 
one of the fufFerers by lofs of property. 
Thofe " good people," who u dreaded no- 
thing fo much as the horrors of civil war," 
with the reverfe of reluftance plundered 
his houfe of all his printing materials and 
furniture ; and, having fcrambled for the 
latter, carried the types to Newhaven, 
where they have fince been employed in 
the fervice of Congrefs. The King's 
ftatue, however, maintained its ground 

Dd 3 till 



till after Mr. Wafliington with the con- 
tinental army had taken pofleffion of the 
city ; when it was indidted of high treafon 
againft the dominions of America, found 
guilty, and received a quaint fentence of 
this kind, viz. That it fliould undergo the 
aft of decollation *, and, inafmuch as it 
had no bowels, its legs Jhould be broken $ 
that the leacj of it fliould be run into bul- 
lets, for the deftrudtion of the Englifli 
bloody-backs, and the refufe be caft in- 
to the fea. The fentence was immedi- 
ately carried into execution, amidft fuch 
huzza's and vociferations of Praife ye the 
Lord ! that it brought to mind the fongs 
at the annual feaft of the calves-head club 
on the 30th of January, in derifion of the 
royal martyr. This infult upon Majefty 
Mr. Wafhington thought proper thus to 
notice in his general orders of 'the next 
day. He was forry, he faid, that his 
foldiers fliould in a riotous manner pull 
down the ftatue of the King of Great- 
Britain j 

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Britain ; yet he could not but commend 
their zeal for defacing every monument 
of Britifh tyranny. 

It has been a matter of furprize to fome 
politicians, that the people of Conne£H- 
cut, who had no real grievance to com- 
plain of, fhould take fo early and decided 
a part againft the fovereignty of Britain, 
and exert themfelves fo exemplary in fa- 
vour of the Boftonian tea-merchants, efpe- 
cially when, if the Eaft-India Company 
had been permitted to import that com- 
modity, they would have been fupplied 
with it at half the price it ufually coft 
them : but the wonder will inftantly va- 
nifh, if it be conlidered, that this pro- 
vince was the feat of the annual conven- 
tion of delegates from all the affociations 
of proteftant diflenters throughout Ame- 
rica, which was firft holden in 1764, as I 
have related. Here, their meetings were 
continued, year after year, without the 
leaft apprehenfion of difturbance from a 

D d 4 King's 



King's Governor ; and here the arcana 
of the American vine, together with the 
folemn league and covenant, were depo- 
fited. It is not to be fuppofed but that 
the political principles of this fynod would 
gradually become the principles of the 
Sober Dijfenters in general ; and the pro- 
ceedings of the latter, when adtion was re- 
quired, afford a clear proof both of the na- 
ture of thofe principles, and the enthufiafm 
with which they had been adopted, 
—Perhaps, no people in the world have 
been fo much deceived as the commonalty 
of the Englifli colonies in America. They 
were confcious of their happinefs under 


the prote&ion of Great- Britain, and wiflied 
for no change in government. Ten years 
ago the great majority would fooner have 
run their heads againft the burning moun- 
tains, than have lifted up a finger with 
a view to a political feparation from 
Great-Britain ; and yet they have been 
prevailed upon, by the inflammatory ef- 


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fufions of the clergy, merchants, and 
lawyers, to commit a thoufand mad ex- 
cefles, run into open rebellion, and im- 
brue their hands in civil blood, under 
the idea of oppofing injury, oppreflion, 
and flavery, though in reality to pro- 
mote what has long been the grand aim 
of their inftigators — Independence. 

Having been a witnefs of the effeds of 
the conventions of Diffenters in New- 
England, particularly that I have juft 
been fpeaking of as taking place at New- 
haven in 1 764, which was annually conti- 
nued, without the lead animadverfion from 
any perfon in authority in Great-Britain, 
notwithftanding the intent of it was wholly 
prejudicial to her interefts; I was the 
more mortified with the implied cenfure 
of a great man in very high office upon a 
meeting of the epifcopal clergy, in his 
anfwer to an addrefs they took the liberty 
to prefent to him, in the vain hope of its 
being produdtive of fome benefit to the 



church in America, but, alas ! whofc 
only fruit was a laconic letter to the fol- 
lowing purport : " I have been ho- j 

noured with your addrefs, and thank you 
for it but am not acquainted by what 
authority you hold your convention."— 
The hauteur in this anfwer to fuch an af- j 
fembly on fuch an occafion, however con- 
gruous with the pride and formality of of- 
fice, was utterly repugnant to the didates 
of policy. Britain loft by it half her friends 
in New-England ; and I will prefume to 
fay, that Britain will lofe all her friends in 
that country, whenever it (hall be difco- 
vered that the fentiments of the Englifli 
Parliament coincide, in that refpedt, witH 
the fentiments of the writer. 

Whilft Mr. Wafhington remained in 
poffeffion of New - York, Connedticut 
ferved as a prifon for thofe perfons who 
had the misfortune to fall under his fufpi- 
cion as difaffe&ed to the caufe of freedom. 
He was himfelf, however, at length j 


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obliged to evacuate it, by General How, 
to the great relief of fuch loyalifts as re- 

In April 1777, fome magazines having 
been formed by the Americans at Dan- 
bury and Ridgefield, Major-General Tryon 
was fent with 1800 men to carry off or 
deftroy them. They reached the places 
of their deftination with little oppofition ; 
but the whole force of the country being 
collected to obftrudt his return, the Gene- 
ral was obliged to fet the (lores on fire, by 
which means thofe towns were unavoid- 
ably burnt. David Woofter, the rebel 
General, Benedict Arnold's old acquain- 
tance and mobbing confederate, received 
a fatal ball through his bladder, as he was 
harrafling the rear of the royal troops j of 
which, after being carried 40 miles to 
Newhaven, he died, and was there bu- 
ried by the fide of the grave of David 

■ ■ 

Dixwell, one of the Judges of Charles 
the Martyr. 



In the fummer of 1779, the fufferings 
of the loyalifts in Connecticut becoming 
too intolerable for longer endurance, Ge- 
neral Sir Henry Clinton determined to 
attempt their relief. Accordingly, he de- 
tached a large party, under the command 
of General Tryon, which landed at New- 
haven, after being oppofed by a number 
of rebels under the command of the Rev. 
Naphthali Dagget, the prefident of Yale 
College, who, notwithftanding the mo- 
deration which I have faid marked his ge- 
neral charafter, was enthufiaftic enough 
to hazard his life on this occafion. He 
loft it, and had the honour of being bu- 
ried on Sodom Hill, near the grave of 
Deacon Potter, without a coffin. Having 
accomplifhed their purpofe here, the 
troops failed to Fairfield, which town 
they were neceffitated,by the oppofition of 
the rebels, to fet fire to, before the loyalifts 
could be releafed from prifon. General 
Tryon then repaired to Norwalk, where 


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having by proclamation enjoined the in- 
habitants to keep within their houfes, he 
ordered centinels to be ftationed at every 
door, to prevent diforders ; a tendernefs, 
however, they infulted, by firing upon 
the very men who were thus appointed 
to guard them. The confequence was, 
deftru&ion to themfelves and the whole 
town, which was laid in afhes. 

I have now mentioned the principal 
proceedings by which the people of Con- 
necticut have diftinguiflied themfelves in 
bringing on and fupporting the rebellion 
of America j and that, I apprehend, in a 
manner fufficiently particular to fhew 
their violence, and to anfwer my purpofe 
of giving the reader an idea of the prefent 
diftrafted, maimed ftate of the province, 
which many molt refpedtable charac- 
ters have been obliged to abandon, at 
the total lofs of their, property, to fave 
their lives. It is very obfervable, that 
a peculiar, charadteriftic refolution ap- 


pears to poffefs the people of Connecti- 
cut. As, on one hand, rebellion has eredted 
her creft in that province with more 
infolence and vigour than in the reft; 
fo, on the other, loyalty has there exhi- 
bited proofs of zeal, attachment, perfe- 
verance and fortitude, far beyond exam- 
ple elfewhere to be found in America. 
In particular, the epifcopal clergy have 
acquired immortal honour by their fteady 
adherence to their oaths, and firmnefs 
under the " aflaults of their enemies ; " 
not a man amongft them all, in this fiery 
trial, having diflionoured either the King 
or church of England by apoftacy. The 
fufferings of fome of them I cannot wholly 
pafs over in filence. 

A mong the greateft enemies to the caufe 
of the Sober Dijfenters, and among the 
greateft friends to that of the church of 
England, the Rev. Mr. Peters ftood con- 
fpicuous. I have already reprefented him 
as fo well (hielded by the friendfhip and 


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efteena of the inhabitants of Hebron, where 
he refided, as to be proof againft the 
common weapons of fanaticifm and ma- 
lice. The Governor and Council, there- 
fore„entered the lifts, and, anxious at all 
events to get rid of fo formidable a foe, ac- 
cufed him of being a fpy of Lord North's 
and the Bifliops. This allegation was 
publiflied by the Governor's order, in 
every republican pulpit in the colony, on 
Sunday Auguft 14, 1774, which induced 
a mob of Patriots from Windham county 
to arm and furround his houfe the fame 
night, in the mod tumultuous manner or- 
dering the gates and doors to be opened. 
Mr. Peters, from his window, afked if 
they had a warrant from a magiftrate to 
enter his houfe. They replied, " We 
* c have Joice's warrant, which Charles 
" the traitor fubmitted to, and is fufficient 
u for you." Peters told them he had but 
one life to lofe, and he would lofe it in 
defence of his houfe and property. Fi- 




< nally, after fome farther altercation, J! 
was agreed that a committee from the 
mob fhould fearch the houfe, and read all 
papers belonging to Mr. Peters. A con** 
mittee was accordingly nominated, who, 
after infpedling his papers as much as 
they pleafed, reported, " that they were 
fatisfied Mr. Peters was not guilty of any 
crime laid to his charge." 

On Sunday the 4th of September, the 
country was alarmed by a letter from 
Colonel Putnam, declaring 99 that Admiral 
Graves had burnt Bofton, and that Ge- 
neral Gage was murdering old and young," 
The Governor of Conne&icut took the 
liberty to add to Mr. Putnam's letter, 
" except churchmen and the addreflers of 
Governor Hutchinfon." The fame day 
40,000 men began their march from Con* 
l nedticut to Bofton, and returned the next, 
having heard that there was no truth in 
Putnam's reports. Dr. Bellamy, thanked 
God for this falfe alarm, as he had there- 

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by pointed out " the inhabitants of Meroz, 
" who went not to the help of the Lord 
" againft the mighty." No churchmen, 
prefoyterians, or Sandemanians, were a- 
mong the 40,000 infurgents; and that was 
judged to be fuffieient proof of their dif- 
affe&ion to the liberties of America. The 
Governor feized this opportunity to fet 
the mobs again, with redoubled fury, 
upon the Rev, Mr. Peters, and the 
loyalifts, whom they then called Peterites ; 
and the intoxicated ruffians fpared neither 
their houfes, goods, nor perfons. Some 
had their bowels crouded out of their 
bodies; others were covered with filth, 
and marked with the fign of the crofs by 
a mop filled with excrements, in token 
of their loyalty to a king who defigned 
to crucify all the good people of America. 
Even women were hung by the heels, 
tarred, and feathered. Mr. Peters, with 
his gown and cloaths torn off, was treated 
in the moft infulting manner : his mother, 

E e daughter, 

4 i8 APPENDI X. 

daughter, two brothers, and fervants; were 
wounded 5 one of his brothers fo badly, 
that he died foon after. Mr. Peters was 
then obliged to abfcond and fly to the 
royal army in Bofton, from whence h& 
went to England, by which means he has 
hitherto preferved his life, though not his 
property, from the rapacious and bloody 
hands of his countrymen.— The Rev. 
Meffieurs Mansfield and Viets were caft 
into jail, and afterwards tried for high 
treafon againft America. Their real of- 
fence was charitably giving viftuals affd 
blankets to loyalifts flying from the rage 
of drunken mobs. They were not in- 
deed convidtcd in fo high a degree as the 
court intended ; but were fined and im- 
prlfoncd, to the ruin of themfelves and fe- 
milies.— The Rev. Meffieurs Graves, 
Scovil, Dibblee, Nichols, Learning, Beach, 
and divers Others, were cruelly dragged 
through mire and dirt. In fliort, all the 
ckrgy of the church were infamoufly 


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infelted, abitfed, and obliged to feek rs- 
ijige in the mountains, till the popular 
pfirenzy was fomewhat abated. 

In July, 1776, the congrefs having de- 
clared the independency of America, $uad 
ordered the commonwealth to be prayed for 
inftead of the King and royal family, all 
the loyal epifcopal churches north of the 
Delaware were fhut up, except thofe im- 
mediately tinder the protection of the 
Britifh army, and one at Newtown, 
Connecticut, of which laft the Rev. 
Mr. John Beach was the redtor, whofc 
grey hares, adorned with loyal and chri- 
ftian virtues, overcame even the madnefs 
of the Sober Diffenters. This faithful 
difciple difregarded the congreffional 
mandate, and praying for the King as 
ufual, they polled him out of his defk, 
put a rope about his neck, and drew him 
3Lcrofs,Ofootonqc river, at the tail of a 
boat, to cool his loyal zeal, as they called 
}l i after which, (he old Confejfor was per- 

E e 2 mitted 


mitted to depart, though not without a 
prohibition to ' pray longer for the King- 
But his loyal zeal was infuperable. He 
went to church, and prayed again for the 
King 5 upon which the Sober Dijj'enters 
again feized him, and refolved upon cut- 
ting out his tongue ; when the heroic ve- 
teran faid, " If my blood muft be flied, 
u let it not be done in the houfe of God." 
The pious mob then dragged him out 
of the church, laid his neck on a block, 
-and fwore they would* cut off his head; 
and infolently crying out, <c Now, you 
c< old 'Devil!' fay your laft prayer," he 
prayed thus, iS Godblefs King George, and 
"forgive all bis and my enemies !** At this 
unexpected and exalted difplay of chri- 
' ftian patience and charity, the mob fo far 
relented as to difcharge and never moleft 
him afterwards for adhering to the liturgy 
of the church of England and his ordina- 
tion oath ; but they relaxed not in their 
Severities towards the other clergymen, 


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becaufe, they faid, younger confcienccs 
arc more flexible. , 
• I cannot conclude* this , work without 
remarking, what a contrail to the epifco- 
pal clergy of Connedicut, and efpecially 
to this illuftrious example of the venerable 
Beach, is afforded by too many of thofe in 
the provinces fouth of Delaware. Here, 
whilft they fuffered every thing but death 
for tenacioufly adhering to their ordina- 
tion oaths ; there, fome of them, of more 
enlarged confciences, were not a(hamed 
to commit perjury in prayer, and re- 
bellion in preaching,— though, be it re- 
membered, their expreflions were de- 
cent, when compared with thofe of the 
fanatics in New-England. The follow- 
ing prayer, ufed by them before Congrefs, 
after the declaration of independence, 
feems to me too likely to gratify the 
curiofity of my readers to be omitted. 
It brought the clergymen into difgrace 
merely by its moderation • 

E e 3 << O LORD, 


«« O LORD, oiir heavenly father, King 
M of Kings, and Lord of Ldrds, whbdoft 
" from thy throne behold all the dwellers 
«* upon earth, arid reigrieft, with power 
'* fupreriie and uncontrouled, bVer all 
" kingdoms, empires, and governments j 
€t look down in mercy, we befeech thee, • 
ft upon thefe bur American ftatfcs, who 
" have fled to thee from the rod of the 
€t oppreffor, and thrown thebifelves Upbn 
" thy grdcious protection, defiring tenet- 
"forth to be dependent only upon thee. 

T^o thee have they appealed for the 
4< righteoufnefs of their caufe ; to thee do 
u they now look up for that countenance 
u and fupport, which thou alone canft 
" give. Take them, therefore, heavenly 
u Father, under thy nurturing care ; gWe 
" them wifdom In council, valcmr in the 
" field. Defeat the malicious dejfgns of 
€i our cruel adverfaries ; convince them 
*' of the unrlghteoufntfs of their ciufe; 
"and, if they ftill perfift in their fan- 

<c guinary 

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** guinary purpofes, O let the voice of thy 
«• unerring juftice, founding in their hearts, 
« c conftrain them to drop the weapons of 
*' war from their enerved hands in the 
u day of battle. Be thou prefent, O 
" God of wifdom, and diredl the coun- 
" cils of this honourable ajfembly. Enable 
u them tQ fettle things upon the beft and 
t€ fureft foundation ; that the fcenes of 
" blood may be fpeedily clofed j that or- 
u der, harmony, and peace, may effedt- 
" ually be reflored, and truth and juftice, 
c< religion and piety, prevail and flourifh 
" amongft thy people. Preferve the health 
*' of their bodies, and the vigour of their 
u minds ; (hower down upon them, and 
cc the millions they reprefent> fuch tem- 
u poral bleffings as thou feeft expedient 
" for them in this world, and crown them 
•« with everlafting glory in the world to 
u come. All this we afk, in the name 
" and through the merits of Jefus Chrift, 
€t thy Son, our Saviour. Amen." 

E e 4 I will 


I will not deny that rebels are to be 
found among the epifcopal clergy north 
of the Delaware; but they amount to five 
only, and not one of them belongs to the 
colony of Connecticut. 

P. S. The Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Hooker, 
mentioned in p. 167, as refiding at 
Hertford, is now dead. 



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A Lien, Ethan, origin of 
his fame uiiL Joins 
in the fecret expedition 
a gain ft Ticonderago 402 
Amufements 320 
Argal, Sir Samuel, compels 
the Dutch at Manhat- 
tan to fuhmit 2 
Arran, Earl of, claims part 

of Connecticut 16, 
Afhford 1 57. 

Aflembly , General, cho- 
fen by the people 79 > 
times of meeting ib. 
Their laws not to be re- 
pealed but by their own 
authority 8^ Refolve to 
fettle their lands on Suf- 
quehanna river Qi. Hold 
a fpecial meeting to con- 
lider of the ftamp-a& 
342 ; vote that the Go- 
vernor do not take the 
oath required by it ; and 
treat the populace on its 
repeal 354. Conduct of, 
in regard to Colonel 
Street Hall and the re- 
volters 359, j6o. 


Bays, the two principal 

Beach, the Rev. Mr. joins- 
the church of England 
zzi ; ignominioufly and 
mod ci uelly treated 418, 
419 ; his heroitm 420. 

Bear, a (he- one and cubs 
killed by General Put- 
nam 160. 

Bellamy, the Rev. Dr. 
fome account of 182. 
Thanks God for General 
Putnam's falfe alarm 416. 

Birds 2j_£. 

Bilhop of London's au- 
thority derided by an 
American judge 178. 

Bifhops, their negleclful 
eondufr. in regard to 
America 230. animad- 
verfions upon, &c. 2jj: 
— 236. notices concern- 
ing 71, 228* 2j_t, 293, 

33 2 > 2^i» HA* 379» 

B lax ton, the, Rev. Mr. 
particulars relating to, 
5_2 note 
Blue Laws, fpecimen of 63 
Bolton 170 
Bofton, peninfula of, ob- 
tained and occupied by 
the Rev. Mr. Blast on £2 
note. Town of, founded 
JL Its port (hut up 390. 



426 I N D 

Attack meditated againft 
it 402. Neck fortified by 
Gen. Gage 398, 403. 

Boftwick, the Rev. Mr. 
attacked by the mob 394 

Boundaries, difputes con- 
cerning 97' — ioz ; of 
Connecticut as at pre fen t 
allowed 124. 

Braioford 209. 

Bribery, difallowed $21. 

Briton, Mr. humorous 
ftory concerning him and 
a deacon *» daughter 306 

Brown, the Rev. Mr. 
declares for the church 
of England 220. 

Browirjts fet fail for Ame- 
rica, and found New Fly- 
mouth 7. 

Eulkley, tne Rev. John, 
fome account of 172, 173 
■ ■ the Rev. Peter, 
character of 172, 173 

Bull- fly defcribed 259. 

Bundling, lingular cuttom 
of, jaUified 325—334. 

Byles, Dr. Mather, dif- 
ingenuous treatment of 

Canaan LSi 
Can fez, American Indians, 
enjoy liberty in perfection 

Canterbury l&z 
Caterpillars ravage the bor- 
ders, of Conne&icut river 

e x. 

Chandler, the Rev. Thomas 
Bradbury, where born 

Charter, petitioned for pri- 
vately 24_» obtained 75, 
claim founded upon, and 
prevarications concerning 
it 29, 30. powers con- 
ferred by rg, ftrengthens 
notions ofxhdependeDce 
84* formally furrendered 
by the colony to Sir Ed- 
mund Andros gfL re- 
gained by a mob, hid in a 
tree, and re-aflumed 89. 
violated by Geo. 11. io;. 

Chatham 169. 

Church of Eugtand, the firft 
erected in Connecticut 
214. profenors of the, 
amount of in 1770, 223. 
reafon of their great in- 
creafe 220. their zeal 
227. meafures adverfe to 

Clergy, epifcopal, in Con. 
nectieut, morality of 230. 
one punUhed for not ob- 
serving the Sabbath 
agreeable to notions of 
Sober Diflenteri 305^ ac- 
cufed of writing falfc- 
hoods 381. acquire im- 
mortal honour by ad- 
hering to their ordination - 
oaths 414. none rebel- 
lious 424. impolitic an- 
fwer to an addrefs §>re- 
fented by them to a great 


I N D E X. 


man in Mgh office 4*0. 
-—immoral, snti-epifoo- 
pal, and rebellious con- 
duel of fome of theht 
in the fouthern provinces 
*J8, 2jl, in, iMi 

Colcheftfjr 1*2. 

Colden, — , Lieutenant-Go- 
vernor of New -York, 
grants lands in Verd- 
mont 108. 

Coldnefs of the winter in 
Connecticut accounted for 

Comic Liturgy, fccted in 
Connecticut on occafion 
of the ftamp-act 340. 

Company for propagating 
the Gofpel in New Eng- 
land, charter obtained 
for the, and abufe of it 

53> iii QOte - 
Commerce of Connecticut 

Connecticote, his kingdom 
163, his conduct towards 
the fettlers £i* his death 

Connecticut, its lati- 
tude and longitude 236. 
whence named 2* three 
parties of Englifh adven- 
turers arrive in 5. right 
to the foil of, considered 
21 — 31. civil and reli- 
gious eftablilhments and 
proceedings of the firft 
Bngtilh ftttlers 32—60. 

forms a confederacy with 
New Plymouth and Maf- 
fachuiets-Bay 72. obtains 
a charter of incorpora- 
tion 75. divided Into 
counties, townihips, &c. 
79 : So, Iketch of its 
religious - political free 
fyftem fince the charter 

93 — 9& ' tne terri- 

tory of, granted to the 
Duke of York 77. its 
confequent lofs ofterri- 
tory £8, 22* loo. dimen- 
fions of, as at prefent al- 
lowed, 124. defcription 
of, at large, 125—335. 
treatment Engfilh travel- 
lers meet with there from 
landlords 120. proceed- 
ings of in regard to the 
ftamp-act 335 — 366; to 
the tea act 385^-3905 to 
that for (hutting the port 
of Boffon 391, 392, &c. 
commits the firlt overt- 
act of high treafon 403, 
abandoned by many of its 
molt refpectable inhabi- 
tants 413, 

Connecticut river, defcrip- 
tion of, 12$. aftonifliing 
narrow in it 128. 

Contingencies, extraordina- 
ry allowance for 278 : of 
what fort fome 317. 

Convention, grand conti- 
nental, of diffenting mi- 
niftexs, at New haven, 


4iS I N D 

notices concerning 208, 

• 236, 402, 409. 

Cooper, the Rev. Miles, 
LL.D. narrowly efcapes 
the fury of the mob at 
New- York 405. 

Cornwall lUr* 

Cotton, the Rev. Mr. no- 
tices relating to 40, note 

Coventry t c6. 

Council of Plymouth, their 
grant, 2, *l. 

Courts inllituted in Con- 
necticut 8oj Cruelty 
of the eccleiiaftical in 

. New- England 148. 

Cuba, defcription of, an 
animal fo called, and ex- 
traordinary qualities of 
male and female 250. 

Curfette, Mrs. furpriz- 
ing difcovery of her 
will 194. 

Cuftoms of the people 302 : 
borrowed of the Indians 

3*3> HAi 327» 
Cutkr, the Rev. Dr. de- 
clares for the church of 
England 220* 


Daggct, the Rev. Mr. 

Naphthali, character of 

2c8 ; killed 412. 
Danbury 222 : burnt 41 1. 
Darby 212. 

Davenport, the Rev. John, 
arrives at New haven. io, 

E x; 

■„ his church-fyftem 40, 

Dead, buried* with their 
; feet to the weft 1 40. • 

Dibblee, the Rev. Mr. 
cruelly treated 418. 

Dixwell, buried at New- 
haven 21 note. 

Douglas, Dr. fbme account 
of 100. 

Durham 212. 

Dutch get footing on Ma- 
nahattan ifland, but are 
compelled to fubmit by 
Argal 2_. revolt 6, 

Dyer, Mr. takes an active 
part in . regard to the 
tfamp - ad 3-8, 


Ea ft- Harden 169. 
Eaft-WindforTSee Wind- 

Eaton, Mr. Theophilus, 

arrives at Newhaven to, 
. chofen governor 40. His 

true character pointed 

out 189. 
Election, management of, 

in Connecticut 322. 
Elliot, the Rev. Mr. feme 

mention of, 150. 
Endfield 169. 

Expenditure of Connecticut 
Exports of Connecticut z6h± 

Fairfield 213, burnt 412. 


i rr d e x. 

Farmington 17$. 

Fenwick, George, cfq. firft 
arrives at $ayhrook 9 . bis 
and aflbciatcs right to. fet- 
tle in Connecticut difcufT- 
ed,and difproved 11 — 18. 
difpofes of.his property 
in America, and returns 
to England 46. 

Fitch, Governor, his con- 
duct on occasion of the 
flamp-aft iiii 

^Fim of Connecticut z&z* 
.Franklin, . Dr. nonces con- 
cerning 338, 340, 386. 
Frogs, an qmazing multi- 
tude, humorous (lory of 


Gage, Genera], arrives at 
Bolton ^oj ; fortifies Bof- 
ton Neck 398, 403; in 
imminent danger or be- 
ing furprized in Eofton 

' 402. 

Gates, &r Thomas, and 
alTociates, accountof their 
patent 1 

Gavelkind, cuftom of, pre- 
vails in Connecticut 319. 

General Aflembly, See Af- 

General Lift, account and 
fpecimen of 226 

Gibbs, the Rev. Mr. in- 
humaa treatment of, 



Glaftonbury 169. 

Glover, Mr. his wickednefa 

in concealing Mrs. Cur- 

fette's will 194. 
Glow T bug, defcribed 259, 
Golhen iSz^ 

Government, fome account 
of 278, 282. the clergy, 
merchants, and lawyers, 

. the three grand parties in 
the ftate 283. 

Governments, bad policy 
of molt 366. 

Graves, the Rev. Mr. cruel 
treatment of 418. 

Great Barrington, why ob- 
noxious to the mob 391;. 

Greenfmith, Mrs. the far It 
perfon executed as a 
witch in America 164. 

Greenwich 213. 

Grenville, George, efq. 
mobbed, hung, and burnt 
in effigy 344, 34s, note. 

Grigfon, Mr. very extra- 
ordinary concealment of 
his will 189. 

Groton 138. 

Guildford defcribed 209. 

Haddam 169. 

Hall, Colonel Street, cbo- 
fen commander of a mob 
of revohers agaioft the 
General Affembly, his 
conduct, and extraordi- 
nary fpeech 357-— - 362. 

Hamilton, Marquis of, bis 


43» INI 

title to a part of Con- 
necticut proved 14 — ig. 
Hancock, John, efq. hit 
difhonourable conduct in 
regard to Mrs. Curfctte't 
will 194, 195. 
Hancock, Mr. his oppofi- 
tion to the tea-act, and 
artifice in difpoling of 
his own itock 387 — 390. 
Hartland 183. 
Harvey, Mr. Joel, receives 
a premium from the So- 
ciety of Arts in London 

Harrifon, Peter, Efq. his 
fpirited and honourable 
conduct in difcovering 
Mr. Griffon's will 191. 
Harrifon, his claim to land 

in Connecticut 24. 
« , Major-Gen. Tho- 

mas, hanged at Charing- 
Crofs 17a. 
Haynes, Mr. John, fettles 
at Hertford g, voted go- 
vernor jc* 
Hebron, defcription of 170. 
refwfes to contribute to 
the relief of the Bofto- 
nians, on the (hutting up 
their port 301 . 
Herrington 17 c. 
Hertford, firit fetrlement 
there by the Engliih, 9 ; 
by what authority 21. 
Defcription of 163. Cu- 
riofities in it 166. 
Hooker, the Rev. Thomas, 
fettles at Hertford, 

B X* 


His motive for quitting 
Maffachufets - Bay 19. 
church - fyftem 3c. his 
tomb reverenced 67. . 

, the Rev. Natha- 
niel, mentioned 67, 424. 

tfowling Wildernefs^ Con- 
necticut improperly fo 
called in 1636, 1 13. 

Huet, the Rev. Mr. fomc 
mention of 170. 

Humble-bee, description of 

Humility, a bird fo called, 
defer ibed 256* 


Imports 267. 

Independence, idea of, 
flrengthened by charter 
84. fymptoms of, mani- 
fested by the colonics 
33c. not the wi(h of the 
common people 408, but 
of their infti gators, the 
clergy, merchants, and 
lawyers 377, 409. formal- 
ly declared by Congreis 


Indians, their mode of 
counting, 28 note. Num- 
ber of them killed in 
Hifpaniola, Porto Rico, 
South-America, and in 
Connecticut and Maifa- 
chufets-Bay 112 ; in the 
Whole of North- America 
and Wed-India iflands 
li i-Thtir averlion to the 
protellant religion 294. 


I N D E X„ 

Iogerfol, David, efq. bar* 
baroufly waned 394. 

Ingerfd!, Jared, etq. m(b« 
bed, and forced to*eiign 
his poft of (Ump-rnafter 
343 .; hung and burnt in 
effigy 34c, note. 

Inhabitants of Connecticut 
263. Their hofpitality 
towards Grangers ■302. 
Of the men £2j ; of the 
women 324. 

In feels 259. 

johnfon, Dr. Samuel, cha- 
racter of 2_ul Declares 
for the church of Eng- 
land a 20. Treacherous 
embaffy of bis fon 403. 

Jolhua, a pretended fachem 


Kent 182* 
Killingfley ic8. 
Killiqgfworth i<?o. 
King's fiatue, atNew-Yotk, 
deitroyed 406. 


Laws, Blue, fpecknen <*£ 
63. other laws 82, 294. 

La w-fuit amazing number 
of 282. 298, 299. re- 
markable nature of fome 
of Lhem 299. 

Latitude and longitude of 
Connecticut 236. 

Learning, the Rev. Mr, 
cruelly treated 418. 

Lebanon 156. 

Litchfield, defcribed 179. 
Little J fane, a nick name 
given to the Americans 

Lyme 141. 


Manners of the people 202. 
Mansfield, the Rev. Mr. 

tried for high treafoa 


Mansfield town 157. 

Manufactures of Connecti- 
cut 265. 

Mafon, his claim to land 

in Connecticut 24. 
Maffachufets-Bny, fettled by 

puritans JL Lofes part of 

its territory 104. 
Merret, Mr. His Angular 

treatment on a charge of 

inceft 146. 
Middleton, defcribed 169. 
Mil ford 209. 

Mill, curious, Invented by 
Mr. Joel Harvey 183. 

Minifter, Sober- diflenting, 
manner of fettling and 
dil miffing 313. 

Mood us, a pretended fa- 
chem 22_. 

Moore, Sir Henry, begins 
toregrant Verdmom 107. 

Motie, treacheroufly ,fent 
againft Ticonderago and 
Crown Point 402. 

Moaley, the Rev. Mr. fined 
for marrying a couple 
of his own parifliioners 


43 2 


the Gofpel expoled 292, 
notices concerning, 


Neal, Rev* Mr. his re pre - 

fentation about Sunk- 
fquaw, Uncas, Jofhua, 
Moodus, tec. exploded 
22, 23, 24, 60, 61. re- 
iu rat ion of his doctrine 
concerning fynods 144. ; 
a facramental teft z6j ; 
the loyally of the Nevv- 
Englanders 290. His en- 
mity a gain ft the Society 
for the Propagation of 


note, lJL 20, 2j, 53 note, 
88, in, 135. 

Negro, tried for caftration 
83. Negro (laves, their 
nard cafe 1 14* 

Nell, Mr. 2157 

New-England, the Matta* 
chufets country nrft fo 
called by Charles, prince 
of Wales 2, divilions of 
*lih4± Caufe of its firft 
fettlement difcufled in,- 

New -Fairfield 182. 

New-Hampfliire, deprived 
of territory 104, 10;. 

Newhaven, fail fettled by 
the EnglUh ioj. totally 
without authority iL» 
Early proceedings 6o^ 
Blue Laws 6^. State of 
after the death of Crom- 
well 2J± Accedes to the 
charter 76. Particular 
defcription of 184, A 

(hip fitted out to procure 
a patent, and wonderful 
confequence 186, 187. 

New- Hertford 183. 

New-Lighrs, nonces con- 
cerning 96, 286,288,289. 

New-LondorTdefcribed 13$. 
Port of, well calculated 
for the grand emporium 
of Connecticut 27L. 

New-Milford l£x. 

Newtown 222. 

New- York gains land from 
Connecticut 78, 29_, io_o ; 
from Mailachutets - Bay 
and Newhamplhire 104, 
106. 14c. Conftitution 
of, Subverted by the So- 
ber Dillenters 404. 

Nichols, Col. deprives Con- 
necticut of Long-Ifland 


- — , the Rev. Mr. 

cruelly treated 418. 
Nor walk 213, burnt 413. 
Norwich, defcription of 



Old Lights, notices concern- 
ing 06, 286. 288, 289. 

Onekp, king of Mohegin, 
22, 23. 

Onions, vaft quantity raifed 
in Weathersfield 67 : 
beds of, weeded by~the 
young females of Wea- 
thersfield ifiiL 

Ofootonoc river, defcrip-. 
tion of 132. 


Digitized by Google 



Parfons, Hugh, found guil- 
ty of witchcraft 165. 

Pawwaw, ancient Indian 
right, celebration of at 
Stratford defcribed 215* 

Peters, the Rev. Hugh, 
account of himfelf and fa- 
mily 48-~n, note. 

— , the Rev. Samuel, 
account of 172, 392,414, 

— , the Rev. Thomas, 
his arrival at Say brook 
% ; church fyftem 32 ; 
ichool 42 5 character 4^, 
fome particulars of his 
life, ibid. note. 

— — William, particu- 
lars relating to 48, £1, 
ill ii, note. 

Phelps treacheroufly fent 
on an expedition againft 
Ticonderago and Crown- 
Point 402. 

Pitt, Mr. a churchman, 
whipped for not attending 
meeting 296. 

Plainfield 162. 

Plymouth New, founded j. 

Pomeroy, Rev. Dr. cha- 
racter of 171. 

Pomfret 158. 

Population 263. 

Pork, unrair dealing in 261;. 

Potter, Deacon, unjultly 
convifled of beaftiality 

Poultry of Connecticut 25c,. 

Prefbyterians, difliked and 
ill-treated by Sober Dif- 
fenters 162, 280. 

Prefton 138. 

Produce of Connecticut 

Prayer of fome of the epif- 
copal clergy in the 
fouthern provinces before 
Congrefs 422* 

Pumkin, hair cut by the 
(hell of, iqi. 

Pumkin - heads, a name 
given to theNew-Englan- 
ders iqs?. 

Punderfon, the Rev. Mr. 
joins the church of Eng- 
land 22 1 . 

Putnam, General, curious 
anecdotes of 1 59 ; kills a 
bear and cubs l6g* His 
narrow efcapc from the 
Indians i£i : tenible to 
them 162. Alarms the 
country by a letter con. 
cernirg Admiral Graves 
and General Gage. 

Quackery truimphrmr 1S0. 
Quaker, flirewd retort of 

one upon his judges c^. 
Quinnipio^, kingdom of, 

183. Rpfufes to grant 

land to the fettlers, and 

is murdered 


Rattle-fnake, fome account 
of 26 1. ufe of its (kin 324. 
F f Reading 



tleading 22^ 

Rebellion, true fources of 

in America 367 — 383. 
Religion, the edablifoed 81. 
Reptiles zhc* 

Revenue 274, objections 
againft railing in America 

Rhode-Ifland, infamous Uw 
of the General Aflbmbly 
of 224. 

Ridgeticld 222. burnt 411. 

Rivers, the three principal 
defcribed 12c, 132. 

Rivington, Mr. plundered 



Sabbath, rigidly obferved 
304* How broken by 
an epifcopal clergyman, 

Sal.iry of the Governor, 
Lieutenant - Governor, 
Treafurer, &c. 278. 

Sali (bury 182. 

Sandeman, the Rev. Mr. 
doctrine of 223. 

Saflacus, fachem of the Pe- 
quods, his kingdom and 
character 133. 

Saybrook, founded <£. De- 
fcribed 14L. Its civil and 
religious eftabliftiments 
32. Eaily proceedings 
Enters into confe- 
deracy J2, Refufes to 
fend agents to England, 
to oppofe the king 46, 
forms an alliance with 

Hertford 42 ; and joint 
in a frcret application for 
a charter 74. 

Saybrook Phi form, fome 
account of C42 

Scovil, the Rev. Mr. cruel 
treatment of 418. 

Seabury, R ev . Dr. taken 
prisoner 40;. 

Seels, religious, in Connec- 
ticut, fome account of 

Sharon, famous for a mill, 

Ship, wonderful ftory of one 
fitted out at Newhaven 

Sick, horrid mode of vifit- 

ing 316. 
Skunk, defcription and 

wonderful property of 


Smith, the Rev. Mr. no- 
tices of 56, 168. 

*■ William, nonces 

concerning q8, 100— 
102, 108. 122, 23c, ;Si. 

Sober Dijfentcrs, religion of, 
eftablilhed in Connecli- 
cut 8_l Their uncandid 
conduct towards cpifco- 
palians, anabaptifts, qua- 
kers, &c. in regard to 
parilh rates 295 ; and 
their fevere treatment of 
Mr. Gibbs for refuting to 
pay them 177. Their hu- 
manity to lick ftraogers 
and perfons Ihipwrccked 




317. Partial fupport of 
. 318. 

Society for the Propagation 
of the Gofpel in Foreign 
Parts, notices concerning 
54. note, 107, 221, 228, 
229, 230, 291, 292, 336, 

Soil 24T. 

Sommcrs 170. 

Stafford, the New-England 

Bath 174, 
Stamford 21 3. 
Stamp-a6t, proceedings and 

opinions relating to, in 

Connecticut 335 — 366. 
Stirling, E.of, his claim to 

part of Connecticut 14. 
Stonington 138, 
Stratford, description of, 


■ river 132. 

Strong, the Rev". Mr. Ne- 

hemiah 208. 
Superftition, ftriking in- 

ftance of iSr. 
Sunkfquavv, pretended fa» 

Chcm 22, 23, 60. 
Suffield 169. 

Symfbury mines, account 
of £25. 


Tea, aft for fending to 
America, violently op- 
pofed 385, 386. 

Temple, Mr. feditious let- 
ters imputed to 386. 

Teft, facramental, unnecef- 

fary in New • England 


Thames river, defcribed 

Ticonderago, fecret expe- 
dition againft 402. 

Toland 170* 

Torrington 183. 

Travellers, Rnglifh, how 
treated by landlords in 
Connecticut 120. 

Tree-frog, ability of 261. 

Trumbull, Governor, fur- 
nilhes a drefs for the effi- 
gy of Mr. Grenville 344 
note : writes an inlidious 
letter to Gen. Gage 398 ; 
adds to an alarming one 
from General Putnam 
416 ; and fpirits up the 
mob againft the loyalills 


Try on, Governor, his cha- 
racter LZl — 123 ; efcapes 
the mob at New- York 
4.0^ ; burns Danbury and 
Ridgeficld ^11 ; releaies 
the prifoners at Newha- 
ven 412 ; burns Fairfield 
ibid, and Norwalk 41 4. 

U & V. 
Uncas, pretended fachem 

22j 23. 
Union i 57. 

Verdmont, accoiint of ioj 
— 111. 

Viets, the Rev. Mr. tried 
for high treafon 418. 


43 6 

Vifey, the Rev. Mr. fap- 
preflfes the Indian Paw- 
waw at Stratford 2_l6* 

Vol un town i&2* 


Wallingford, dcfcription of 

Warwick, Earl of, his title 
to the foil of any part of 
Connecticut, difproved, 
1J — 18. 

Waterbury 2 1 2. 

Weathersfield, dercription 
of 167. fingular induftry 
of the females tne re 1 68. 

Wentworth, Benning, efq. 
grants townthips in Verd- 
mont f ct;. 

Whappcrknocker, descrip- 
tion of 249. 

WheelocV, Dr. Eleazer, no- 
tices concerning c_c_, note, 

Whipperwill, delcription of 

Whnerleld, the Rev. Geo. 
anecdote of 1 anc ^ cna " 
rafter 211. Attempts to 
work a miracle at Say- 
brook 149. His charac- 
ter of the people of Nor- 
wich 140 ; of thole of 

Hebron 1^1 ; of Guild- 
ford 210 ; of Connecti- 
cut in general 226, 304. 

Whftmore, the Rev. Mr. 
declares for the church 
of England 22£L 

Will, icandalous conceal- 
ment of Mr. Grigfon'a 
189, of Mrs. C ur feue'i 

Wellington 1^7. 
Winchefter 183. 
Windham 150, inhabitants 

of terribly alarmed by 

frogs IC2. 
Wtndfor, defcribed, 169. 
Wolcot, Oliver, treacheroui 

cmbafly of 403. 

Woodchuck, defcription of 

2 Co. 

W cod Hock 15S. 
Wooiier, General, mortally 


Yale College, account of, 
199 — 209 : retort of its 
corporation upon the Ge- 
nt val Aflembly ^o. 

York, Duke of, oblains a 
grant including halt of